Location of Repository

Psychological differentiation and cognitive style

By James McGuire

Abstract

This thesis is concerned with the concept of psychological differentiation,\ud and with its applications in the field of cognitive style, particularly in\ud relation to individual differences in field-dependence-independence. The\ud thesis addresses itself specifically to the 'differentiation hypothesis',\ud which suggests that tests of perceptual field-dependence measure an individual's\ud overall level of differentiation, and that this level will manifest\ud itself consistently across many areas of psychological functioning,\ud including cognition, personality, and social behaviour.\ud An examination of the concept of differentiation, and of research carried\ud out on field-dependence-independence, revealed inconsistencies in the\ud existing evidence and in the relationship between this evidence and the\ud interpretation of the concept. Attention was focused on three questions\ud about the links between field-dependence and differentiation, and some\ud empirical work is reported bearing on each.\ud The first question was whether individual differences in field-dependence\ud owed more to specific kinds of visual experience than to underlying,\ud enduring personality characteristics. A cross-cultural study is outlined\ud which concerns this issue. This involved the administration of a battery\ud of perceptual tests to groups of schoolchildren (n=54) and university\ud students (n=34) in Hong Kong. Results did not favour the alternative view\ud of field-dependence scores; however field-dependence tests showed strong\ud associations with general intelligence.\ud A second study investigated more closely the relationship between field dependence,\ud intelligence, and other cognitive 'styles' (capacity for\ud divergent thinking, and reflection-impulsivity). A number of cognitive\ud style measures were administered to groups of school pupils in Edinburgh\ud (n=110). Results suggested that while the other cognitive style tests are\ud separate from each other and from intelligence, field-dependence tests\ud measure little that can be distinguished from more general ability factors.\ud However the possibility remained that field-dependent and field-independent\ud individuals differ in their orientation towards or away from the interpersonal\ud environment.\ud Accordingly, a third study explored the possibility that field-dependent\ud persons, judged as 'less differentiated' on the basis of perceptual tests,\ud in fact functioned at a higher level of differentiation in other domains\ud - the verbal and the interpersonal. A study conducted with adolescents\ud in Sheffield (n=91) failed to find support for this suggestion. While\ud field-dependent and field-independent persons did differ in their orientation\ud towards others, it could not be shown that field-dependent individuals\ud were more 'differentiated' in their perceptions of them

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 1982
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8603

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1952). A Chinese philosopher's theory of knowledge.
  2. (1967). A cognitive style approach to cross-cultural research.
  3. (1960). A comparative study of the differential effect upon personality of Chinese and American child training practices.
  4. (1969). A conceptual investigation of Witkin's notion of perceptual, style.
  5. (1972). A cross-cultural comparison of cognitive styles in Chinese and American children.
  6. (1970). A cross-cultural perspective in psychology.
  7. (1957). A cross-cultural survey of some sex differences in socialisation.
  8. (1975). A cross-national study of cognitive style among managers and technicians.
  9. (1959). A developmental analysis of cognition as observed in dimensions of Rorschach and objective test performance,
  10. (1962). A developmental study of the discrimination of letter-like forms.
  11. (1935). A Dynamic Theory of Personality.
  12. (1970). A factor analytic study of perceptual behaviour
  13. (1964). A first study of the attainment and ability of Hong Kong Primary IV pupils in selected schools. Hong Kong Council for Educational Research, Publication No. 2, Hong Kong
  14. (1960). A free response approach to the study' of person cognition.
  15. (1966). A Grid Test of schizophrenic thought disorder.
  16. (1972). A hierarchical measure of cognitive complexity.
  17. (1977). A Manual for Repertory Grid Technigue.
  18. (1963). A modification of the EmbeddedFigures Test for use with young children.
  19. (1968). A portable Rod-and-Frame apparatus. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  20. (1975). A reply to 'Some misgivings about the Matching Familiar Figures Test as a measure of reflection-impulsivity'.
  21. (1956). A short form of Witkin's Embedded Figures test.
  22. (1966). A study in general ability testing in Hong Kong: the application of Raven's Progressive Matrices
  23. (1935). A study of some social factors in perception.
  24. (1934). Abstract behaviour among the Tepehuan.
  25. (1967). Adapting : Jitkin's field independence theory to accommodate new information from Africa.
  26. (1968). Affective reactions and patient-therapist interactions among more differentiated and less differentiated patients early in therapy.
  27. (1953). Age and Achievement.
  28. (1971). Age and sex performance differences as measured by a new non-verbal visual test. PeIchononic Science,
  29. (1973). An examination of factor structure of Rod-and-Frame test and Embedded Figures test. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  30. (1942). An experimental investigation of past experience as a determinant of visual form perception.
  31. (1969). An exploratory study of mother-child interaction in infancy as related to the development of differentiation.
  32. (1975). An investigation of the relationship between cognitive tempo and creativity in pre-school age children. Child Development,
  33. (1972). Analysis and modification of search strategies of impulsive and reflective children on the Matching Familiar Figures Test. Child DeveloDment,
  34. (1974). and
  35. (1972). and others
  36. Asch (1948a). Studies in Space Orientation: III. Perception of the upright in the absence of a visual field.
  37. Asch (1948b). Studies in Space Orientation: IV. Further experinents on perception of the Wright with displaced vinual fields.,
  38. (1972). Aspects of social development in nursery school children with emphasis on introduction to the group.
  39. (1956). Assessment of abstract behaviour in a non-Western culture.
  40. (1969). Attribution of responsibility and valence of success ar. si failure in relation to initial confidence and task performance.
  41. (1967). Biological aspects of inhibition systems.
  42. (1965). Body rotation and the stability of field dependence.
  43. (1968). Change in confidence following success or failure as a predictor of subsequent performance.
  44. (1971). Characteristics and validity of the grid test of thought disorder.
  45. (1964). Children's dependent and achievewent behaviours in social situations and their perceptual fielddependence.
  46. (1953). China's traditional family, its characteristics and disintegration.
  47. (1966). Clinical and Social Judgment: the discrimination of behavioural information.
  48. (1971). CoEnitive patterning in the blind.
  49. (1960). Cognitive aspects of role-taking in children.
  50. (1965). Cognitive complexity and impression formation.
  51. (1976). Cognitive complexity and social prediction.
  52. (1966). Cognitive complexity in person perception and nation Perception: a developmental approach.
  53. (1955). Cognitive complexity-simplicity and predictive behaviour.
  54. (1973). Cognitive controls and person perception.
  55. (1966). Cognitive patterninC in mildly retarded boys.
  56. (1977). Cognitive set influences on Witkin's Rod and Frame test. Percertual and Motor Skills,
  57. (1964). Cognitive style and memory for faces.
  58. (1967). Cognitive style differences between engineers and college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  59. (1970). Cognitive style in the organisation and articulation of ambiguous stimuli. Psychonomic Sc,
  60. (1978). Cognitive Style: Five Approaches and Relevant Research.
  61. (1972). Cognitive styles and responses to the threat of frustration.
  62. (1971). Cognitive styles in hyperactive children and the effect of methylphenidate.
  63. (1976). Cognitive Styles in Infancy and Early Childhood. Lawrence Eribaum Associates.
  64. (1977). Cognitive-Behaviour Modifications an Integrative Approach.
  65. (1948). Comparative Psychology of Mental Development.
  66. (1971). Complex motor learning in four-yearolds.
  67. (1966). Conceptual impulsivity and inductive reasoning. Child Development,
  68. (1960). Conceptual structure in thought disordered schizophrenics.
  69. (1961). Conceptual systems and Personality Organisation.
  70. (1957). Consistency in respcnse to group pressures.
  71. (1973). Continuous-discontinuous concept attainment as a function of individual differences in cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  72. (1966). Contrary Imaginations.
  73. (1969). Correlations between scores for a Portable R FT and a stationaxy R? T. Perceptual and 1lotor : kills,
  74. (1970). cperiments in Visual Perception.
  75. (1972). Creative ability over a five-year span. Child Development,
  76. (1973). Creativity and cognitive style: a life-span perspective. In
  77. (1966). Creativity and intelligence: a partial replication with Scottish children of Getzels' and Jackson's study'.
  78. (1962). Creativity and Intelligence.
  79. (1971). Creativity as related to field independence and mobility.
  80. (1963). Creativity in young children.
  81. (1970). Creativity. In
  82. (1967). Cultural and physiological influences upon spat. ial-perceptual processes in West Africa. Part II.
  83. (1967). Cultural and physiological influences upon spatial-perceptual processes in West Africa. Part I.
  84. (1969). Culture's influence on behaviour.
  85. (1955). Dancing experience and personality in relation to perception.
  86. (1955). Dependence on external influence: correlates in perception, attitudes, and judgment.
  87. (1974). Developmental influences in pictorial depth perception among Hong Kong Chinese children.
  88. (1966). Developmental studies in reflection and analysis.
  89. (1956). Differences determines par le personalite dans la perception visuelle de la verticalite. Revue de Psychologie Apaliquee,
  90. (1964). Differential use of incidental stimuli in problem solving as a function of creativity.
  91. (1974). Differentiation across cultures: cognitive style and affective style. In
  92. (1962). Differentiation and abstraction in concept fozzaation.
  93. Dimensions of cognitive closure.
  94. (1973). Divergent thinking abilities -a validation study.
  95. (1968). Early social correlates of cognitive functioning in six-year-old boys.
  96. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development.
  97. (1974). Ecology, cultural adaptation, and psychological differentiation: traditional patterning and acculturative stress. In
  98. (1974). Ecology, culture, and psychological differentiation.
  99. (1966). Effect of brief 'sensory deprivation on field dependence.
  100. (1967). Effects of amount of prior success and failure on expectations of success and subsequent task performance.
  101. (1963). Effects of child-rearing practices on development of differential cognitive abilities. Child Development,
  102. (1975). Effects of explicit instructions to 'be creative' on the psychological meaning of divergent thinking test scores.
  103. (1973). Effects of free association training on children's ideational fluency.
  104. (1963). Effects of specific training on frame dependence. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  105. (1965). Effects of. practice on sex-related differences in performance on Embedded Figures. Psychonomic Science,
  106. (1959). Embedded-figures and personality. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  107. (1932). Emotional development in early infancy.
  108. (1976). EScploring Sex Differences.
  109. (1968). Establishment of the flexible thinking factor in fifth-grade boys.
  110. (1970). Experiments in Visual Perception,
  111. (1968). Factors affecting the use of psychological vs. nonpsychological constructs on the Rep test.
  112. (1965). Family experiences related to the development of differentiation in children.
  113. (1967). Father absence, cross-sex identity, and field-dependent behaviour in male adolescents.
  114. (1973). Field articulation differences in language abilities.
  115. (1974). Field articulation, sex, spatial visualisation, dependency, practice, laterality of the brain and birth order. Perceptual and liotor Skills,
  116. (1965). Field dependence and external directedness.
  117. (1965). Field dependence and memory for incidental material. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  118. (1963). Field dependence and overcoming embeddedness.
  119. (1970). Field dependence and prior reinforcement as determinants of social interaction in judgment.
  120. (1972). Field dependence and psychological differentiation: reexamination. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  121. (1973). Field dependence and self-disclosure. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  122. (1967). Field dependence and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  123. (1961). Field dependence, manifest anxiety, and sociometric status in children.
  124. (1978). Field Dependence. In
  125. (1968). Field independence in concept attainment. 'Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  126. (1964). Field-dependence and arousal.
  127. (1961). Field-dependence and intellectual functioning.
  128. (1973). Field-dependence-independence and psychological differentiation. A bibliography through 1972 with index.
  129. (1976). Field-dependence-independence and psychological differentiation. Bibliography with index, Supplement .
  130. (1976). Field-dependence-independence and social traditionalism: a comparison"of ethnic subcultures of Trinidad.
  131. (1975). Field-dependence-independence, social-non-social play and sex differences in preschool children. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  132. (1972). Field-dependence, impulsivity, and learning disabilities.
  133. (1973). Field-independent architecture students. Perceptual and Motor skills,
  134. (1970). Field' dependence as a predictor of alcoholic therapy dropouts.
  135. (1977). Fielddependent and field-independent cognitive styles and their educational implications.
  136. (1965). Generality of cognitive complexity-simplicity as a personality construct.
  137. Goodenough (1977b). Field dependence and interpersonal behaviour.
  138. (1963). Growing up in New Guinea.
  139. (1962). Guiding Creative Talent.
  140. (1972). Hypnotizability and 'cognitive styles': A search for relationships.
  141. (1964). I; eliability of maternal retrospection: a preliminary report. Family Process,
  142. (1967). Identification of form in patterns of visual noise.
  143. (1950). Individual differences in ease of perception of embedded figures.
  144. (1970). Individual variation in cognitive processes.
  145. (1964). Information processing in the child: significance of analytic and reflective attitudes.
  146. (1971). Inquiring Man: the theory of ners- onal constructs.
  147. (1969). Intelligence and Cultural Environment.
  148. (1960). Interfering and facilitating effects of test anxiety.
  149. (1968). Interrelations and correlates in children's learning and problem solving.
  150. (1961). Interrelationships among measures of field-dependence, ability, and personality traits.
  151. (1971). Intratest and sex differences on a portable Rod-and-Frame test. Perceptual and Motor S
  152. (1971). Intratest Rod-and-lßrame test scores for females. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  153. (1969). Is field-independence an expression of the general personality source trait of independence,
  154. (1969). Itcflective and impulsive observing behaviour. Child Developnent,
  155. (1971). iýffects of a ministratio: a and scoring on divergent thinking tests.
  156. (1971). Jewish subcultural patterns and psychological differentiation.
  157. (1974). Judgement of emotion: attention versus accuracy.
  158. (1963). L'Apprentissage de la segregation perceptive. Ls chologie Francaise,
  159. (1962). Laurence Irlbaum Associates
  160. (1970). Learning and problem solving by the mentally retarded under three testing conditions: Developmental Psychology,
  161. (1973). Lee was my supervisor until his 'death in
  162. (1968). Manual for the AH5 Group Test of high-grade intelligence
  163. (1972). Measuring field dependence in Zambia. A cross-cultural study.
  164. (1970). Models and Analogies in Science.
  165. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children.
  166. (1966). Modifiability of an impulsive tempo.
  167. (1973). Modification of performance on the 1, od-and-Frame test. }? ercentual and Motor ; Skills,
  168. (1956). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences.
  169. (1971). Note on control for intelligence in studies of field-dependence with young children. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  170. (1965). nviron^rental handicaps and intellectual developnent.
  171. (1963). of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13,383-389"
  172. (1971). On the validity of the portable Rodand-Frame test. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  173. (1977). Origins of the field-dependent and field-independent cognitive styles. Research Bulletin 77-9, Educational Testing
  174. (1972). Patterns of play and social interaction in pre-school children.
  175. (1968). Perceptual and socio-economic variables, instruction in body-orientation, and predicted academic success in young children. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  176. (1970). Perceptual correlates of reflective and impulsive behaviour.
  177. (1972). Perceptual field dependence and psychopathology: replication and critique.
  178. (1973). Person Perception in Childhood and Adolescence.
  179. (1968). Personality and Assessment.
  180. (1954). Personality ThrouE. h Perception.
  181. (1969). Principles of Perceptual Learning and Development. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  182. (1967). Problem of sex differences in space perception and aspects of intellectual functioning.
  183. (1969). Problems of bilingual milieu in Hong Kong: strain of the two-language system. In
  184. (1970). Pseudo perceptual differentiation.
  185. (1965). Psychological differentiation and forms of pathology.
  186. (1975). Psychological differentiation as a factor in conflict resolution.
  187. (1975). Psychological differentiation in cross-cultural perspective.
  188. (1977). Psychological differentiation: current status.
  189. (1977). Psychological Differentiation. In
  190. (1963). Psychological effects of social change in a West African community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  191. (1963). Psychological significance of styles of conceptualisation. In
  192. (1965). Reflection-impulsivity and reading ability in primary grade children. Child Development,
  193. (1977). Reflection-impulsivity as a predictor of children's academic achievement. Child Development,
  194. (1976). Reflection-impulsivity: a review.
  195. (1977). Reflectionimpulsivity and self-control in pre-school children.
  196. (1952). Regression, Retrogression, and Development. In Field Theory in Social Science.
  197. (1959). Relation of child training to subsistence economy.
  198. (1962). Relationship between maternal behaviour and attitudes toward children.
  199. (1970). Relationship between measures of psychological differentiation and intellectual ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  200. (1968). Relationship between perceptual style and simulator sickness.
  201. (1967). Relationships of field-dependent and' field-independent cognitive styles to creative test performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  202. (1968). Retest reliability of Rod-and-Frame scores during early adulthood. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  203. (1968). Roles of activation and inhibition in sex differences in cognitive abilities.
  204. (1972). Selecting breativity tests for use in research.
  205. (1971). Self-disclosures an experimental analysis of the transparent self Wiley.
  206. (1970). Self-esteem and social-personal orientation of Indian 12- and 18-year-olds. Psychological Reports,
  207. (1967). Self-image disparity: a developmental approach.
  208. (1970). Self, values, and affects: derivations from Tomkins' polarity theory.
  209. (1977). Sex differences in choice behaviour: the object-person dimension. Perception,
  210. (1970). Sex differences in ego functioning: exploratory studies of agency and communion.
  211. (1971). Sex differences in emotional and cognitive behaviour in mammals including man: adaptive and neural bases.
  212. (1971). Sex differences in emotional behaviour in mammals including man: endocrine bases.
  213. (1977). Sex differences in empathy and related behaviours.
  214. (1967). Sex differences in field-dependence for the Eskimo. Replication of Berry's findings.
  215. (1968). Sex differences in mental and behavioural traits. Genetic Psychology Monographs,
  216. (1958). Sex differences in perceptual behaviour.
  217. (1972). Sex differences in the development of spatial and linguistic skills.
  218. (1973). Sex differences in the relationship of cognitive style and intellectual functioning in disadvantaged preschool children.
  219. (1977). Sex roles in divergent thinking.
  220. (1973). Situationism in psychology: an analysis and a critique. Psychological Review,
  221. (1970). Social change and parent-child relations in Hong Kong. In Ih.
  222. (1969). Social compliance as a function of field dependence. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  223. (1973). Social conformity and psycholog ical differentiation.
  224. (1969). Social structure and social stratification in Hong Kong. In
  225. (1970). Socioeconomic background and cognitive functioning in preschool children.
  226. (1974). Some misgivings about the Matching Familiar Figures Test as a measure of reflection-impulsivity.
  227. (1958). Some psychological correlates of field-independence.
  228. (1967). Some relationships between creativity and perception in sixth-grade children. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  229. (1964). Spatial Ability: its educational and social
  230. (1971). Spatial perception of highly skilled and poorly skilled females. Perceptual and Motor Ski11s,
  231. (1965). Stability and change in the adolescent's self-image. Child Develovment,
  232. (1967). Stability of cognitive style from childhood to young adulthood.
  233. (1966). Stability of field-dependence in chronic alcoholic patients.
  234. (1967). Statistical Methods.
  235. (1970). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.
  236. (1968). Style and capacity in analytic functioning.
  237. (1971). Subjects' assumptions and scores on the RFT. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  238. (1971). Task and social orientation: a study'of field-dependence, 'arousal', and memory for-incidental material. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
  239. (1972). Task orientation versus social orientation in young children and their attention to relevant social cues. Child Development,
  240. (1968). Teaching approach and the development of divergent thinking abilities in primary schools.
  241. (1966). Temne and Eskimo perceptual skills.
  242. (1958). Temporal factors in the perception of verticality.
  243. (1955). The ability to judge people.
  244. (1953). The achievement motive and field independence.
  245. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. LsZchological Review,
  246. (1968). The Chinese Language Today.
  247. (1957). The concept of development frort a comparative and organismic point of view.
  248. (1967). The Development of Sex Differences.
  249. (1969). The differential effects of rural and urban upbringing on the development of cognitive styles.
  250. (1972). The distinctiveness of field independence.
  251. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilisation and the organisation of behaviour.
  252. (1942). The effect of practice upon the perception of simple y- designs masked by more complex designs.
  253. (1956). The effect of prolonged exposure to visually presented patterns on learning to discriminate them.
  254. (1970). The Essentials of Factor Analysis.
  255. (1968). The Evaluation of Personal Constructs.
  256. (1961). The family in China, past and present. Pacific Affairs,
  257. (1963). The generality of cognitive complexity.
  258. (1959). The influence of amoba. rbital (amylobarbitone) and methamphetamine on the focus of attention.
  259. (1974). The influence of culture and sex on the perception of persons.
  260. (1969). The influence of language, education, and culture on attentional preference between colour and form.
  261. (1933). The influence of part experience in visual perception.
  262. (1976). The influence of some parental characteristics on children's primary abilities and field independence: a study of adopted children.
  263. (1958). The measurement and correlates of category width as a cognitive variable.
  264. (1962). The nature and measurement of schizophrenic thought disorder.
  265. (1962). The nature and nurture of creative talent.
  266. (1957). The origin of differences in extent of independence in children: developmental factors in perceptual field dependence. Unpublished Bachelor's thesis,
  267. (1979). The Psychological World of the Juvenile Delinquent.
  268. (1974). The Psychology of Sex Differences.
  269. (1956). The quantitative study of shape and pattern recognition.
  270. (1975). The relation of reflection-impulsivity to fielddependence-independence and internal-external control in children.
  271. (1976). The relationship between field independence and sentence dis-ambiguation ability. 'Journal of Psycholinguistic Research,
  272. (1974). The relationship of acculturation to cognitive style among Mexican Americans.
  273. (1965). The relationship of role identification and ego strength to sex differences in the Rod-and-Frame test.
  274. (1968). The Rod-and-Frame test: some comments on methodology.
  275. (1972). The role of cognitive style in academic performance and in teacher-student relations. Paper given at a symposium on 'Cognitive Styles, Creativity, and Higher Education', sponsored by the Graduate i, ecord Lxariination Board,
  276. (1976). The role of individual differences in field dependence as a factor in learning and memory.
  277. (1937). the role of past experience in the visual apprehension of , masked forms.
  278. (1956). The structure of intellect.
  279. (1969). The talented student: a validation of the creativity-intelligence distinction.
  280. (1969). The theory of evolution today. In
  281. (1964). The use of ability tests in Hong Kong. Scientia Paedagogica Experimentalis,
  282. (1965). The validity and reliability of new hod Frame test.
  283. (1968). tonogranhs of the Society for F: eeeaxch in Child Development, 33"
  284. (1975). Traditional Chinese approaches to socialisation. In
  285. (1971). Training impulsive children to talk to themselves: a means of developing self-control.
  286. (1960). Transfer of a discrimination from objects to patterns.
  287. (1970). Visual Perception of Form.
  288. (1972). Visual scanning strategies of reflective, inpulsive, fast-accurate, and slow-inaccurate children on the Matching Familiar Figures test. Child Development,
  289. Witkin (1948a). Studies in Space Orientation: I. Perception of the upright with displaced visual fields.
  290. Witkin (1948b). Studies in Space Orientations II. Perception of the upright with displaced visual fields and body tilted.
  291. (1963). Zigler stands firm.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.