Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The organisation and conservation of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) associated serine protease-3 (MASP-3) in mammals, amphibia, reptiles and bony fish

By Steven Hanson

Abstract

The published articles [p. 268-278] are not available in the electronic version of this thesis due to third party copyright restrictions. The full version can be consulted at the University of Leicester Library.Mannan binding lectin associated serine protease (MASP) are found associated with Mannan binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin, two alternative recognition molecules involved in activation of the lectin arm of the complement cascade. MBL and ficolin (H-ficolin, L-ficolin and M-ficolin) recognise carbohydrate moieties on the surface of pathogens; a resulting conformational change in the recognition molecule converts the associated MASP proenzyme to its active form.\ud MBL-MASP complexes play an essential role in the innate immune response in the period before an epitope specific adaptive antibody driven solution is found, to date there are three known MASP.\ud MASP and MASP-like proteins generate much interest due to their unique position in the activation apparatus of the complement pathway. Being the point of the first proteolytic cleavage for subsequent cleavage events, MASPs are an ideal point to apply a brake to any spurious activation leading to disease. The aim of this study is to further the knowledge of MASP-3 role in the lectin pathway and establish its connection with other members of the MASP family of proteins.\ud MASP-3 is the most recently characterised mannan binding lectin associated serine protease, here is presented the cloning, characterisation and recombinant expression of this novel complement serine protease in a number of mammalian and non-mammalian species. MASP-3 demonstrates a striking degree of sequence conservation between species.\ud MASP-3 is an alternatively spliced transcript of the MASP-1/3 locus; this study identifies in the current sequence database a truncated third alternatively splice transcript in human, rhesus monkey, rat, mouse and porcine species

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8598

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2000). [Structure and function of the Ficolin family]."
  2. (1994). A 100-kDa protein in the C4-activating component of Ra-reactive factor is a new serine protease having module organization similar to C1r and C1s."
  3. (1989). A human serum mannose-binding protein inhibits in vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus."
  4. (1982). A new complement-dependent bactericidal factor found in nonimmune mouse sera: specific binding to polysaccharide of Ra chemotype Salmonella."
  5. (1993). A new member of the C1s family of complement proteins found in a bactericidal factor, Ra-reactive factor, in human serum."
  6. (1996). A novel human serum lectin with collagen- and fibrinogen-like domains that functions as an opsonin."
  7. (2000). A novel truncated isoform of the mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP) from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)."
  8. (1979). A rosette assay for the determination of C 1 q receptor-bearing cells."
  9. (1997). A second serine protease associated with mannan-binding lectin that activates complement."
  10. (2005). A true autoactivating enzyme. Structural insight into mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 activations."
  11. (1999). A truncated form of mannose-binding lectinassociated serine protease (MASP)-2 expressed by alternative polyadenylation is a component of the lectin complement pathway."
  12. (2003). Absence of association between mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms and HIV-1 infection in a Colombian population."
  13. (1992). Activation of the classical complement pathway by mannose-binding protein in association with a novel C1s-like serine protease."
  14. (2001). Activation of the lectin complement pathway by ficolins."
  15. (2002). Activation of the lectin complement pathway by H-ficolin (Hakata antigen)."
  16. (2000). An essential role of MBL-associated serine protease-1 and -3 in activation of complement by lectin pathway."
  17. (2009). Analogous interactions in initiating complexes of the classical and lectin pathways of complement."
  18. (2002). Analysis of the relationship between mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genotype, MBL levels and function in an Australian blood donor population."
  19. (1997). Ancient origin of the complement lectin pathway revealed by molecular cloning of mannan binding protein-associated serine protease from a urochordate, the Japanese ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi."
  20. (2004). Antibody-mediated activation of the classical pathway of complement may compensate for mannose-binding lectin deficiency."
  21. (1999). Assignment of the gene encoding mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP2) to human chromosome 1p36.3-->p36.2 by in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis."
  22. (2001). Association between deficiency of mannosebinding lectin and severe infections after chemotherapy."
  23. (1995). Association between mannan binding protein deficiency and recurrent miscarriage."
  24. (1999). Association of mannose-binding lectin gene heterogeneity with severity of lung disease and survival in cystic fibrosis."
  25. (1998). Association of mannose-binding-lectin deficiency with severe atherosclerosis."
  26. (1990). Basic local alignment search tool."
  27. (1978). Binding and activation of the first component of human complement by the lipid A region of lipopolysaccharides."
  28. (1994). Binding of mannan-binding protein to various bacterial pathogens of meningitis."
  29. (2001). C1q and mannose binding lectin engagement of cell surface calreticulin and CD91 initiates macropinocytosis and uptake of apoptotic cells."
  30. (1989). C1q interactions with cell surface receptors."
  31. (1998). C1q receptors: regulating specific functions of phagocytic cells." Immunobiology
  32. (1997). Ca2+ binding to the first epidermal growth factor module of coagulation factor VIIa is important for cofactor interaction and proteolytic function."
  33. (1999). Calreticulin is expressed on the cell surface of activated human peripheral blood T lymphocytes in association with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules."
  34. (1988). Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus. Structures of oligosaccharides linked to the envelope glycoprotein 120."
  35. (1998). Catalytic triads and their realtives."
  36. (1992). CD19: lowering the threshold for antigen receptor stimulation of B lymphocytes."
  37. (1994). Cell-surface protein identified on phagocytic cells modulates the C1q-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis."
  38. (1999). Characterization of human serum mannan-binding protein promoter."
  39. (2004). Characterization of recombinant mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-3 suggests an activation mechanism different from that of MASP-1 and MASP-2."
  40. (2002). Characterization of the interaction between Lficolin/p35 and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1 and -2."
  41. (1996). Characterization of two mannose-binding protein cDNAs from rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): structure and evolutionary implications."
  42. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4."
  43. (2006). Cloning and characterization of mannosebinding lectin from lamprey (Agnathans)."
  44. (2001). Cloning and characterization of novel ficolins from the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi."
  45. (1998). Cloning and characterization of the Hakata antigen, a member of the ficolin/opsonin p35 lectin family."
  46. (1996). Cloning and characterization of the human lectin P35 gene and its related gene."
  47. (1995). Collectin in a non-mammalian species: isolation and characterization of mannan-binding protein (MBP) from chicken serum."
  48. (2000). Collectin structure: a review."
  49. (1994). Collectins--soluble proteins containing collagenous regions and lectin domains--and their roles in innate immunity."
  50. (2003). Collections and ficolins: humoral lectins of the innate immune defense."
  51. (2002). Comparative analyses of immunoglobulin genes: surprises and portents."
  52. (2005). Comparative genomics of major histocompatibility complexes."
  53. (2001). Comparative genomics of the MHC: glimpses into the evolution of the adaptive immune system."
  54. (2001). Comparative genomics provides evidence for an ancient genome duplication event in fish."
  55. (2000). Complement activation after oxidative stress: role of the lectin complement pathway."
  56. (1993). Complement activation upon binding of mannanbinding protein to HIV envelope glycoproteins."
  57. (1991). Complement components C1r/C1s, bone morphogenic protein 1 and Xenopus laevis developmentally regulated protein UVS.2 share common repeats."
  58. (1975). Complement dependence of localisation of aggregated IgG in germinal centres."
  59. (1989). Complement membrane attack on nucleated cells: resistance, recovery and non-lethal effects."
  60. (2000). Complement receptor 1/CD35 is a receptor for mannan-binding lectin."
  61. (2001). Continual Low-Level Activation of the Classical Complement Pathway."
  62. (1998). Contribution of the CCR5 and MBL genes to susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection in the Finnish population."
  63. (2000). Control of the classical and the MBL pathway of complement activation."
  64. (2000). Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human complement c1s: a serine protease with a handle."
  65. (2008). Crystal structure of the CUB1-EGF-CUB2 domain of human MASP-1/3 and identification of its interaction sites with mannan-binding lectin and ficolins."
  66. (2003). Crystal structure of the CUB1-EGF-CUB2 region of mannose-binding protein associated serine protease-2."
  67. (2000). Cutting edge: complement-activating complex of ficolin and mannose- binding lectin-associated serine protease."
  68. (2005). Decoupling of carbohydrate binding and MASP2 autoactivation in variant mannose-binding lectins associated with immunodeficiency."
  69. (2001). Deficiency of mannose-binding lectin and burden of infection in children with malignancy: a prospective study."
  70. (1991). Defined chemically cross-linked oligomers of human C-reactive protein: characterization and reactivity with the complement system."
  71. (2005). Detection of an autologous ligand for mannan-binding lectin on human B lymphocytes."
  72. (2001). Detection of serum thermolabile beta-2 macroglycoprotein (Hakata antigen) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polysaccharide produced by Aerococcus viridans."
  73. (2002). Determining the one, two, three, or four long and short loci of human complement C4 in a major histocompatibility complex haplotype encoding C4A or C4B proteins."
  74. (1998). Different molecular events result in low protein levels of mannan- binding lectin in populations from southeast Africa and South America."
  75. (2003). Differential expression of the murine mannosebinding lectins A and C in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs and tissues."
  76. (1999). Digestion of C1q collagen-like domain with MMPs-1,-2,-3, and -9 further defines the sequence involved in the stimulation of neutrophil superoxide production."
  77. (2000). Distinct pathways of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)- and C1-complex autoactivation revealed by reconstitution of MBL with recombinant MBL- associated serine protease-2."
  78. (2005). Diversity and function of adaptive immune receptors in a jawless vertebrate."
  79. (1990). Diversity of oligosaccharide structures on the envelope glycoprotein gp 120 of human immunodeficiency virus 1 from the lymphoblastoid cell line H9. Presence of complex-type oligosaccharides with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine residues."
  80. (1993). DNA polymerase-catalyzed addition of nontemplated extra nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA fragment."
  81. (2000). Dynamic expression of multiple scavenger receptor cysteine-rich genes in coelomocytes of the purple sea urchin."
  82. (1995). EBP-37, a new elastin-binding protein in human plasma: structural similarity to ficolins, transforming growth factor-beta 1-binding proteins."
  83. (1986). Effects of fibrinogen derivatives upon the inflammatory response. Studies with human fibrinopeptide B."
  84. (2010). Essential role of mannose-binding lectinassociated serine protease-1 in activation of the complement factor D."
  85. (1995). Estimation of confidence in phylogeny: the complete-and-partial bootstrap technique."
  86. (2001). Estimation of divergence times from multiprotein sequences for a few mammalian species and several distantly related organisms."
  87. (2002). Evolution of enzyme cascades from embryonic development to blood coagulation."
  88. (2001). Evolution of initiating enzymes of the complement system."
  89. (2004). Evolution of the complement system."
  90. (2002). Evolution of the initiating enzymes of the complement system."
  91. Exon structure reveals its evolutionary relationship to a human pulmonary surfactant gene and localization to chromosome 10."
  92. (1998). Expression of complement receptors 1 and 2 on follicular dendritic cells is necessary for the generation of a strong antigenspecific IgG response."
  93. (2006). Extra-hepatic transcription of the human mannose-binding lectin gene (mbl2) and the MBL-associated serine protease 1-3 genes."
  94. (1981). Factors affecting complement activation by Staphylococcus aureus cell walls, their components, and mutants altered in teichoic acid."
  95. (1988). Fibrinogen-derived peptide B beta 1-42 is a multidomained neutrophil chemoattractant."
  96. (2005). Ficolin A and ficolin B are expressed in distinct ontogenic patterns and cell types in the mouse."
  97. (2001). Ficolins and the lectin complement pathway."
  98. (2006). Fig.74 Schematic diagram of the cloning strategy for prokaryotic recombinant expression of rat and human MASP-3. Lower panel indicates MASP-3 protein domain structure, upper panel indicating the Chapter 3: Results Chapter 5: Future work
  99. (2000). Follicular stromal cells and lymphocyte homing to follicles."
  100. (1981). Formation of the initial C3 convertase of the alternative complement pathway. Acquisition of C3b-like activities by spontaneous hydrolysis of the putative thioester in native C3."
  101. (2005). Functional Characterization of
  102. (2002). Functional characterization of human mannosebinding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 and MASP-2 promoters, and comparison with the C1s promoter."
  103. (2003). Fundamental immunology.
  104. (2002). Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences."
  105. (2003). Glycosylation inhibitors and neuraminidase enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binding and neutralization by mannose-binding lectin."
  106. (1999). Hakata antigen, a new member of the ficolin/opsonin p35 family, is a novel human lectin secreted into bronchus/alveolus and bile."
  107. (1995). Hucolin, a new corticosteroid-binding protein from human plasma with structural similarities to ficolins, transforming growth factor-beta 1-binding proteins."
  108. (1996). Human ficolin: cDNA cloning, demonstration of peripheral blood leucocytes as the major site of synthesis and assignment of the gene to chromosome 9."
  109. (1998). Human L-ficolin: plasma levels, sugar specificity, and assignment of its lectin activity to the fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain."
  110. (2005). Human M-ficolin is a secretory protein that activates the lectin complement pathway."
  111. (1994). Human mannose-binding protein carbohydrate recognition domain trimerizes through a triple alpha-helical coiled-coil."
  112. (1997). Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1): determination of levels in body fluids and identification of two forms in serum."
  113. (2001). Identification of a site on mannan-binding lectin critical for enhancement of phagocytosis."
  114. (2002). Identification of human CD93 as the phagocytic C1q receptor (C1qRp) by expression cloning."
  115. (2004). Identification of the mouse H-ficolin gene as a pseudogene and orthology between mouse ficolins A/B and human L-/Mficolins."
  116. (2007). Identification of the site of human mannanbinding lectin involved in the interaction with its partner serine proteases: the essential role of Lys55."
  117. (1990). Identification of two distinct intron elements involved in alternative splicing of beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA."
  118. (2008). Identifying protein domains with the Pfam database." Curr Protoc Bioinformatics Chapter 2:
  119. (2003). Immature dendritic cells possess a sugar-sensitive receptor for human mannan-binding lectin."
  120. (2000). Impaired secretion of rat mannose-binding protein resulting from mutations in the collagen-like domain."
  121. (1979). In vitro activation of complement by isolated human heart subcellular membranes."
  122. (1995). Increased frequency of homozygosity of abnormal mannan-binding-protein alleles in patients with suspected immunodeficiency."
  123. (2006). Inflammation and miscarriage." Semin Fetal Neonatal Med.
  124. (2003). Inherited deficiency of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2."
  125. (1999). Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system."
  126. (2000). Interaction of C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with C1r, C1s, MBL- associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and the MBLassociated protein MAp19."
  127. (2002). Interaction of C1q and mannanbinding lectin with viruses."
  128. (2000). Interaction of mannose-binding lectin with primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1."
  129. (2000). Interaction of mannose-binding protein with associated serine proteases: effects of naturally occurring mutations."
  130. (1986). Interaction of purified lipoteichoic acid with the classical complement pathway."
  131. (2004). Interleukins-1, -4, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor-beta, FAS, and mannose-binding protein C gene polymorphisms in Australian women: Risk of preterm birth."
  132. (1995). Interplay between promoter and structural gene variants control basal serum level of mannan-binding protein."
  133. (1991). Intersection of the complement and immune systems: a signal transduction complex of the B lymphocyte-containing complement receptor type 2 and CD19."
  134. (1988). Isolation and characterization of lectins specific for mannose/fucose/N- acetylglucosamine from rat peritoneal macrophages."
  135. (1994). Isolation, cDNA cloning, and overexpression of a 33-kD cell surface glycoprotein that binds to the globular "heads" of C1q."
  136. (1993). Isolation, renaturation, and formation of disulfide bonds of eukaryotic proteins expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies."
  137. (2004). L-ficolin in children with recurrent respiratory infections."
  138. (2004). L-ficolin Is a Pattern Recognition Molecule Specific for Acetyl Groups."
  139. (2003). L-ficolin specifically binds to lipoteichoic acid, a cell wall constituent of gram positive bacteria, and activates the lectin pathway of complement."
  140. (2004). L-ficolin specifically binds to lipoteichoic acid, a cell wall constituent of Gram-positive bacteria, and activates the lectin pathway of complement."
  141. (2003). Levels of mannan-binding lectinassociated serine protease-2 in healthy individuals."
  142. (1995). Localization of the genes for the 100-kDa complement-activating components of Ra-reactive factor (CRARF and Crarf) to human 3q27-q28 and mouse 16B2-B3."
  143. (1966). Location of disulphide bridges by diagonal paper electrophoresis. The disulphide bridges of bovine chymotrypsinogen A."
  144. (2003). Low levels of mannose-binding lectin do not affect occurrence of severe infections or duration of fever in acute myeloid leukaemia during remission induction therapy."
  145. (2006). Low mannose-binding lectin function is associated with sepsis in adult patients."
  146. (2002). Low serum level of mannan-binding lectin is a determinant for pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion."
  147. (2000). M-ficolin is expressed on monocytes and is a lectin binding to N-acetyl- D-glucosamine and mediates monocyte adhesion and phagocytosis of Escherichia coli."
  148. (2000). Mannan-binding lectin and C1q bind to distinct structures and exert differential effects on macrophages."
  149. (1998). Mannan-binding lectin in human serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue and its role in Alzheimer's disease."
  150. (1997). Mannan-binding lectin in the sub-Saharan HIV and tuberculosis epidemics."
  151. (2004). Mannan-binding lectin insufficiency in children with recurrent infections of the respiratory system."
  152. (2006). Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 3 cleaves synthetic peptides and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5."
  153. (1995). Mannose binding protein (MBP) enhances mononuclear phagocyte function via a receptor that contains the 126,000 M(r) component of the C1q receptor."
  154. (2002). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) therapy in an MBL-deficient patient with severe cystic fibrosis lung disease."
  155. (2001). Mannose-Binding Lectin Accelerates Complement Activation and Increases Serum Killing of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C."
  156. (2003). Mannose-binding lectin deficiency--revisited."
  157. (2003). Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism predicts hospital admissions for COPD infections."
  158. (1999). Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and susceptibility to infection in systemic lupus erythematosus."
  159. (2005). Mannose-binding lectin recognizes peptidoglycan via the N-acetyl glucosamine moiety, and inhibits ligand-induced Chapter 7: Bibliography proinflammatory effect and promotes chemokine production by macrophages."
  160. (2000). Mannose-binding lectin: structure, function, genetics and disease associations."
  161. (1995). Mannose-binding protein gene polymorphism in systemic lupus erythematosus."
  162. (1996). Mannose-binding protein in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus."
  163. (1986). Mannose-binding proteins in human serum: identification of mannose- specific immunoglobulins and a calciumdependent lectin, of broader carbohydrate specificity, secreted by hepatocytes."
  164. (2009). MASP-1, a promiscuous complement protease: structure of its catalytic region reveals the basis of its broad specificity."
  165. (1998). MASP-2, the C3 convertase generating protease of the MBLectin complement activating pathway." Immunobiology
  166. (2001). MASP-3 and its association with distinct complexes of the mannan- binding lectin complement activation pathway."
  167. (2009). MBL-associated serine protease-3 circulates in high serum concentrations predominantly in complex with Ficolin-3 and regulates Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation." Immunobiology.
  168. (2005). Meeting the demand for innate and adaptive immunities during evolution."
  169. (2007). MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0."
  170. (1975). Metal chelate affinity chromatography, a new approach to protein fractionation."
  171. (2006). Microbiology of airway disease in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis."
  172. (2001). Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm."
  173. (1987). Modulation of FcR function by complement: subcomponent C1q enhances the phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized targets by human monocytes and culture-derived macrophages."
  174. (1994). Molecular characterization of a novel serine protease involved in activation of the complement system by mannose-binding protein."
  175. (1989). Molecular cloning : a laboratory manual.
  176. (1993). Molecular cloning and characterization of ficolin, a multimeric protein with fibrinogen- and collagen-like domains."
  177. (2001). Molecular markers of serine protease evolution." Embo J
  178. (2002). Monomeric structures of the zymogen and active catalytic domain of complement protease c1r: further insights into the c1 activation mechanism."
  179. (2009). Multi-component complement system of Cnidaria: C3, Bf, and MASP genes expressed in the endodermal tissues of a sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis."
  180. (2002). Multiple sequence alignment using ClustalW and ClustalX." Curr Protoc Bioinformatics Chapter 2:
  181. (2003). Murine serine proteases MASP-1 and MASP3, components of the lectin pathway activation complex of complement, are encoded by a single structural gene."
  182. (2003). No strong relationship between mannan binding lectin or plasma ficolins and chemotherapy-related infections."
  183. (1983). Non-enzymic activation of the covalent binding reaction of the complement protein C3."
  184. (2003). Nonrandom tripeptide sequence distributions at protein carboxyl termini."
  185. (1976). Nonspecific complement activation by streptococcal structures. II. Properdin-independent initiation of the alternate pathway."
  186. (1988). Novel non-templated nucleotide addition reactions catalyzed by procaryotic and eucaryotic DNA polymerases."
  187. (1998). Oligomeric structure and tissue distribution of ficolins from mouse, pig and human."
  188. (2004). Organization of the MASP2 locus and its expression profile in mouse and rat."
  189. (2003). Origin of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-3 involved in the lectin complement pathway traced back to the invertebrate, amphioxus."
  190. (1999). P35, an opsonic lectin of the ficolin family, in human blood from neonates, normal adults, and recurrent miscarriage patients."
  191. (1999). Pathophysiological roles of calreticulin in autoimmune disease."
  192. (1997). Pfam: a comprehensive database of protein domain families based on seed alignments."
  193. (2005). Polymorphisms in the FCN2 gene determine serum variation and function of Ficolin-2."
  194. (2000). Polymorphisms in the MBL2 promoter correlated with risk of HIV-1 vertical transmission and AIDS progression."
  195. (2005). Preoperative mannan-binding lectin pathway and prognosis in colorectal cancer."
  196. (1998). Presence of the variant mannosebinding lectin alleles associated with slower progression to AIDS. Amsterdam Cohort Study."
  197. (2000). Proteolytic activities of two types of mannosebinding lectin- associated serine protease."
  198. (1990). RAG-1 and RAG-2, adjacent genes that synergistically activate V(D)J recombination."
  199. (1997). Recognition of 3'-processing sites of human mRNA precursors."
  200. (1996). Regulation of the B cell response to T-dependent antigens by classical pathway complement."
  201. (2002). Regulation of the mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement on Neisseria gonorrhoeae by C1-inhibitor and alpha 2-macroglobulin."
  202. (1988). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the complement component C4 loci on chromosome 6: studies with emphasis on the determination of gene number."
  203. (1976). Role of complement in the induction of immunological responses."
  204. (2007). Role of ficolin in innate immunity and its molecular basis."
  205. (1971). Role of molecular conformation in determining the electrophoretic properties of polynucleotides in agaroseacrylamide composite gels."
  206. (2002). Ser(214) is crucial for substrate binding to serine proteases."
  207. (1987). Serum lectin with known structure activates complement through the classical pathway."
  208. (2004). Significantly increased levels of mannosebinding lectin (MBL) in rheumatic heart disease: a beneficial role for MBL deficiency."
  209. (1987). Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction."
  210. (1998). Solution structure of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like module of human complement protease C1r, an atypical member of the EGF family."
  211. (1986). Specific enzymatic amplification of DNA in vitro: the polymerase chain reaction."
  212. (2009). Stickleback genome database 55.1j."
  213. (2001). Stoichiometry of complexes between mannosebinding protein and its associated serine proteases. Defining functional units for complement activation."
  214. (2003). Structural and evolutionary consequences of unpaired cysteines in trypsinogen."
  215. (2004). Structural and functional characterization of complement C4 and C1s-like molecules in teleost fish: insights into the evolution of classical and alternative pathways."
  216. (2004). Structure and activation of the C1 complex of complement: unraveling the puzzle."
  217. (1989). Structure and evolutionary origin of the gene encoding a human serum mannose-binding protein."
  218. (2001). Structure and flexibility of the multiple domain proteins that regulate complement activation."
  219. (1988). Structure and function of epidermal growth factor-like regions in proteins."
  220. (2002). Structure-function studies of the receptors for complement C1q."
  221. (1983). Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids."
  222. (1996). Sublytic complement attack induces cell cycle in oligodendrocytes."
  223. (1997). Sublytic concentrations of the membrane attack complex of complement induce endothelial interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 through nuclear factor-kappa B activation."
  224. (2001). Substrate specificities of recombinant mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1 and-2."
  225. (1976). Subunit composition and structure of subcomponent C1q of the first component of human complement."
  226. (2004). Superoxide production from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by human mannan-binding protein (MBP)."
  227. (1997). Susceptibility to HIV infection and progression of AIDS in relation to variant alleles of mannose-binding lectin."
  228. (1998). T cell-dependent immune response in C1qdeficient mice: defective interferon gamma production by antigen-specific T cells."
  229. (2002). The biological functions of MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs)."
  230. (1997). The complement-activating protease P100 is expressed by hepatocytes and is induced by IL-6 in vitro and during the acute phase reaction in vivo."
  231. (2002). The crystal structure of the zymogen catalytic domain of complement protease C1r reveals that a disruptive mechanical stress is required to trigger activation of the C1 complex."
  232. (1993). The CUB domain. A widespread module in developmentally regulated proteins."
  233. (1997). The cytolytically inactive terminal complement complex activates endothelial cells to express adhesion molecules and tissue factor procoagulant activity."
  234. (2006). The evolution of immune mechanisms."
  235. (1972). The gel electrophoresis of DNA."
  236. (2004). The genes encoding bovine SP-A, SP-D, MBL-A, conglutinin, CL-43 and CL-46 form a distinct collectin locus on Bos taurus chromosome 28 (BTA28) at position q.1.8-1.9."
  237. (1989). The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin."
  238. (1989). The human mannose-binding protein gene.
  239. (1998). The human ortholog of rhesus mannose-binding protein-A gene is an expressed pseudogene that localizes to chromosome 10."
  240. (2002). The mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and MAp19: four components of the lectin pathway activation complex encoded by two genes."
  241. (1994). The murine mannose-binding protein genes (Mbl 1 and Mbl 2) localize to chromosomes 14 and 19."
  242. (1999). The N-terminal CUB-epidermal growth factor module pair of human complement protease C1r binds Ca2+ with high affinity and mediates Ca2+-dependent interaction with C1s."
  243. (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees."
  244. (2008). The Pfam protein families database."
  245. (2006). The plasticity of immunoglobulin gene systems in evolution."
  246. (1999). The rat and mouse homologues of MASP-2 and MAp19, components of the lectin activation pathway of complement."
  247. (2003). The role of mannose-binding lectin in health and disease."
  248. (2006). The role of properdin in the assembly of the alternative pathway C3 convertases of complement."
  249. (1996). The SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure. On behalf of the Working Group on Sepsis-Related Problems of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine."
  250. (2004). The structure of MBL-associated serine protease-2 reveals that identical substrate specificities of C1s and MASP-2 are realized Chapter 7: Bibliography through different sets of enzyme-substrate interactions."
  251. (1999). The three-dimensional structure of Asp189Ser trypsin provides evidence for an inherent structural plasticity of the protease."
  252. (2004). The X-ray structure of human MBLassociated protein 19 (MAp19) and its interaction site with mannan-binding lectin and L-ficolin."
  253. (1999). Two constituents of the initiation complex of the mannan-binding lectin activation pathway of complement are encoded by a single structural gene."
  254. (1998). Two lineages of mannose-binding lectinassociated serine protease (MASP) in vertebrates."
  255. (1999). Unexpected crucial role of residue 225 in serine proteases."
  256. (2004). Unraveling V(D)J recombination; insights into gene regulation."
  257. (2002). Which came first, the lectin/classical pathway or the alternative pathway of complement?"
  258. (2001). X-ray snapshots of serine protease catalysis reveal a tetrahedral intermediate." nature structural biology 8(689-694).

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.