Location of Repository

Museum Learners Club: Social Environments for Inclusive Learning

By Susan Davis Baldino

Abstract

The Museum Learners Club is a socially mediated learning environment that welcomes diverse learners. This thesis presents its philosophical and theoretical foundations and an ethnographic account of how I tested it with learners on the autism spectrum and their non-autistic peers. In theory and in practice, the Museum Learners Club demonstrates the efficacy of museums for inclusive learning and the significance of a secure museum-school partnership.\ud The idea of the Museum Learners Club originated from progressive learning theory that is a hallmark of the museum studies discourse. It was further developed through an examination of the personal and social nature of knowledge, the process of learning, and designs for learning from the fields of philosophy, cognitive psychology, and knowledge management. \ud Leading forces behind my thinking include Michael Polanyi’s convictions of personal and tacit knowledge, Lev Vygotsky’s social constructivism, and Etienne Wenger’s learning theory known as “communities of practice”. The Museum Learners Club was built on the principle that learning occurs as a result of building new understanding from a prior knowledge base through participation and expansion of identities. I describe the Club as a “constructivist community of practice”.\ud The thesis also grapples with challenges of social inclusion and inclusive education. The Museum Learners Club embraces a democratic view of the validity of all learners. It makes provisions to serve a wide range of learning styles including autistic behaviors that can inhibit communication, social interaction and learning. My work complements autism research that values socially based interventions.\ud Success in the field indicated that the Museum Learners Club was a viable participatory framework and proved that learning in museums can enhance typical school education for a diversity of learners. It portends a larger impact for museums, schools and a multicultural world that require equitable learning solutions

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8373

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1897) “My Pedagogic Creed”,
  2. (1969a) “The Structure of Consciousness”, Knowing
  3. (2004a) “Changing Values in the Art Museum: Rethinking Communication and Learning”,
  4. (2004a) “Museum-School Bridges: A Legacy of Progressive Education”.
  5. (2007a) “In Search of a Pedagogy”.
  6. (2000). (ed.) Helping Children with Autism to Learn,
  7. (2000). 43-46, 95. Examples of the use of Vygotsky in museum literature include Csikszentmilhalyi and Hermanson,
  8. (1995). A Cabinet of Curiosties: Inquiries into Museums and their Prospects, Smithsonian Institution Press,
  9. (1938). A Category of the human mind : the notion of person; the notion of self”, translated
  10. (2006). A Companion to Museum Studies,
  11. (2000). A Framework for Organizing a Cumulative Research Agenda”,
  12. (2000). A Laboratory for Museum Learning: New York City Museum School”,
  13. (2006). A Multicomponent Conceptualization of Authenticity: Theory and Research”,
  14. (1984). A Theory of the Teacher in the Learning Activities of Everyday Life”,
  15. (2004). Action Research for Inclusive Education: Changing places, changing practice, changing minds, RoutledgeFalmer, London and
  16. (1986). Actual Minds, Possible Worlds,
  17. (1984). Adult Guidance of Cognitive Development”,
  18. (2008). Advice for Parents of Young Autistic Children”, Autism Research Institute.
  19. (2000). After the Elephant Roars: The Next Step in Diversification”,
  20. (1999). An Agenda for American Museums in the Twenty-First Century”,
  21. (2007). An Emerging Research Framework for Studying Free-Choice Learning and Schools”,
  22. (2006). An Identity-Centered Approach to Understanding Museum Learning”,
  23. (2002). aquamarine blue 5: Personal Stories of College Students with Autism, Swallow
  24. Arts and Sciences (2003) Best Practices for Inclusion: Creating a Quality Educational Environment for ALL Children.
  25. (1994). Assessing Student Understanding and learning in Constructivist Study Environments”.
  26. (1999). Autism in Special and Inclusive Schools: ‘there has to be a point to their being there’”,
  27. (2004). Autism Therapies Still a Mystery, But Parents Take a Leap of Faith”,
  28. (2006). Being bent over backward: A mother and teacher educator challenges the positioning of her daughter with disabilities”,
  29. (2003). Beyond Big and Awesome: Outcome-Based Evaluation”,
  30. (2003). Beyond Empowerment: Building a Company of Citizens”,
  31. (2003). Beyond the Wall: Personal Experiences with Autism and Asperger Syndrome, Autism Asperger Publishing Co.,
  32. (1998). Building a Learning Organization”, Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management,
  33. (2006). Building Relationships through Communities of Practice: Museums and Indigenous People”,
  34. (2002). Burning Buses, Burning Crosses: Student Teachers See Civil Rights”,
  35. (2008). Calling All Spiritual Pilgrims: Identity in the Museum Experience”,
  36. (2005). Charting the Landscape, Mapping New Path: Museums, Libraries,
  37. (2005). Chocolate … makes you autism': impairment, disability and childhood identities”,
  38. (2000). Classic Work: Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation”,
  39. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Thinking Visible”,
  40. (2003). Collins and Duguid call their instructional paradigm a “Cognitive 6 Jarvis et al,
  41. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity,
  42. (2000). Community Development as a Natural Step”,
  43. (2009). Community participation and inclusion: people with disabilities defining their place”,
  44. (2000). Conducting Research with Children and Young People, www.mrs.org.uk Market Research Society
  45. (2004). Congressional Appropriations Committee Report on the State of Autism Research.
  46. (1998). Constructing Informed Practice”,
  47. (1999). Constructing Knowledge, Reconstructing Schooling”, Educational Leadership,
  48. (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning”.
  49. (2000). Constructivism in Museums: How Museums Create Meaningful Learning Environments”,
  50. (1998). Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for Those Who Would Link Practice to Theory”,
  51. (2002). Constructivism in the Community College Classroom”, The History Teacher,
  52. (1998). Constructivism, Educational Research, and John Dewey”, paper delivered at the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy.
  53. (2002). Constructivism: From Personal Beliefs to Theoretical Principles”, The Morning Watch: Educational and Social Analysis,
  54. (1997). Constructivism: From Philosophy to Practice”.
  55. (1991). Constructivist Learning Theory: the Museum and the Needs of People”.
  56. (2004). Constructivist Remediation: Correction in Context”,
  57. (2000). Crafting Community-Based Museum Experiences: Process, Pedagogy, and Performance”,
  58. (2002). Cultivating Communities of Practice,
  59. (2006). Cultural Theory and Museum Studies”,
  60. (1916). Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education,
  61. (2002). Democracy and Global Citizenship: Creating Value by Educating for Social Reform”. http://www.ikedacenter.org/thinkers/hickman_lecture.htm (accessed 14
  62. (1991). Designing Effective Learning Environments: Cognitive Apprenticeship Models”, Institute on Education and The Economy,
  63. (2002). Developing a community of practice: museums and reconciliation in Australia”,
  64. (2002). Developing a scheme for finding evidence of the outcomes and impact of learning in museums, archives and libraries: the conceptual framework”. http://www.le.ac.uk/museumstudies/research/pub1110.html (accessed 17
  65. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
  66. (1998). Dinosaurs and White Elephants:
  67. (2003). Disability Studies: information and Resources.
  68. (1995). Disabled people and museums: the case for partnership and collaboration”,
  69. (1993). Diversity and Inclusion: Toward a Curriculum for Human Beings”,
  70. (2006). Doing Identity Work in
  71. (2001). Educating Children with Autism,
  72. (2000). Educators on Exhibit Teams: A New Role, A New Era”,
  73. Eilean (2007a) Museums and Education: Purpose,
  74. Eilean (2007b) “Education, postmodernity and the museum”,
  75. (2007). Emancipatory Research Methodologies: the Road to Social Justice”,
  76. (1997). Emancipatory Research: Realistic goals or impossible dream?”,
  77. (2000). Enabling Knowledge Creation: How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the Power,
  78. (2006). Engaging Autism: Using the Floortime Approach to Help Children Relate, Communicate, and Think, Da Capo Press,
  79. (2004). Ethical and Legal Considerations, www.esds.ac.uk Halasa,
  80. (1992). Ethical Standards of the American Educational Research Association, www.aera.net American Sociological Association
  81. (2003). Ethnography for Education,
  82. (1995). Evaluating teaching and learning in museums”,
  83. (1984). Everyday Cognition: Its Development in Social Context,
  84. (1995). Evidence of Development from People’s Participation in Communities of Learners”,
  85. (2008). Examining Five Promising Methodologies for Treating Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  86. (1992). Excellence and Equity: Education and the Public Dimension of Museums, American Association of Museums,
  87. (1995). Exhibitions as Communicative Media”,
  88. (1938). Experience and education,
  89. (1999). Finding evidence of learning in museum settings”,
  90. (2006). Five Minds for the Future,
  91. (2004). for Museums and Galleries
  92. (2000). Foreword,
  93. (2008). French Theory in America”,
  94. (2006). Grandparents Speak: Museum Conversations across the Generations”,
  95. (2005). Guide to Integrating Reflection into Field-Based Courses, National Service Learning Clearinghouse.
  96. (2002). Harnessing the power of history”,
  97. (2003). Helping Children with Autism Learn: Treatment Approaches for Parents and Professionals,
  98. (1990). Hermeneutics and the Social Sciences”.
  99. (2004). How About Not ‘Curing’ Us, Some Autistics Are Pleading”,
  100. (2000). How Museums Can Shape Public Education: Chrysalis Charter School”,
  101. (2005). How Students Understand the Past: from theory to practice,
  102. (2009). http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyin gConceptMaps.htm (accessed 15
  103. (2009). http://www.artsandsciences.leon.k12.fl.us/PDFWordDocuments/Forms/AllItems.a spx?RootFolder=%2fPDFWordDocuments%2fHandbooks&FolderCTID=&View ={FC4A4034-6BDB-403C-A9ED-2822DB1332B5} (accessed 19
  104. (2008). http://www.museumse.org.uk/ABC_working_with_schools/downloads/EPDP_Re search.doc (accessed 16
  105. (2007). Implementing the SCERTS Model for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders”, presentation,
  106. (2002). Inclusive education – a worldwide movement”, Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education. http://inclusion.uwe.ac.uk/inclusionweek/articles/socmod.htm (accessed 9
  107. (1999). Increased exhibit accessibility through multisensory interaction”,
  108. (2002). Index for Inclusion: Developing learning and participation in schools, Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.
  109. (2006). Inside the Autistic Mind”, Time,
  110. (1994). Intrinsic motivation in museums: why does one want to learn?”,
  111. (1984). Introduction: Thinking and Learning in Social Context”,
  112. (1978). Introduction”,
  113. (2004). Introductory Guide for Parents: Going to the heart of Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome and pervasive Development Disorder, Gustein, Sheely & Associates,
  114. (2007). Investigating Socially Mediated Learning: A Sociocultural Approach”,
  115. (1980). Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities,
  116. (2005). Is This Autism?” http://www.rdiconnect.com/download/default.asp, accessed 28
  117. (2005). It’s So Much Work to Be Your Friend: Helping the Learning Disabled Child Find Social Success, Touchstone Books,
  118. (1990). Knowing objects through an alternative learning system”,
  119. (2001). Knowing What We Know: Supporting Knowledge Creation and Sharing in Social Networks”,
  120. (2000). Knowledge Management: Classic and Contemporary Works,
  121. (2006). Learning for a small planet: a research agenda.
  122. (2000). Learning from Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning,
  123. (1996). Learning in Context”, in About Learning: A Field Guide for Museums,
  124. (1995). Learning in Interactive Environments: Prior Knowledge and New Experience”,
  125. (2002). Learning in Museums, A Continuing Conversation”,
  126. (1996). Learning Inside the Head”, in About Learning: A Field Guide for Museums,
  127. (2006). Learning Outside the Classroom Manifesto,
  128. (2002). Learning With, Through, and About Art: The Role of Social Interactions”,
  129. (2002). Lessons Without Limit: How Free-Choice Learning is Transforming Education,
  130. (2008). Life on and Slightly to the Right of the Autism Spectrum: An Inside View on Success”, lecture,
  131. (2004). Listening in on Museum Conversations,
  132. (2000). Long Term Museum Programs for youth”,
  133. (2002). Looking for Learning in Visitor Talk: A Methodological Exploration”,
  134. (2005). Looking Reality in the Eye: Museums and Social Responsibility,
  135. (2002). Looking Through the Glass: Reflections of Identity in Conversations at a History Museum”,
  136. (2000). Making Meaning Together: Lessons from the Field of American History”,
  137. (2002). Making Museums Matter, Smithsonian Institution Press,
  138. (2007). Marcel Mauss: In Pursuit of the Whole”,
  139. (2004). Measuring Learning Outcomes in Museums, Archives and Libraries: The Learning Impact Research Project (LIRP)”,
  140. Melanie (2000a) “Intensive Interaction and Children with Autism”,
  141. (1986). Michael Polanyi: A Critical Exposition,
  142. (1962). Mind in Society,
  143. (1998). Models of Teaching and Learning: Participation in a Community of Learners”,
  144. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age,
  145. (1995). Mucking Around in Museum Research”,
  146. (2006). Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons, Basic Books,
  147. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice, Basic Books,
  148. (2000). Multisensory Education and Learners with Profound Autism”,
  149. (2000). Museum Education and the Genius of Improvisation”,
  150. (2000). Museum Education in Europe: Societies in Transition”,
  151. (2006). Museum Education”,
  152. (1998). Museum Mission Statements: Building a Distinct Identity, American Association of Museums,
  153. (2007). Museum Revolutions: How museums change and are changed,
  154. (2006). Museum-Schools: Hybrid spaces for accessing learning”, The Center for Informal Learning and Schools,
  155. (1998). Museums and American Intellectual Life,
  156. (1995). Museums and communication: an introductory essay”,
  157. (1999). Museums and Interpretive Communities”, paper presented at
  158. (2001). Museums and Learning”, Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries,
  159. (2002). Museums and the combating of social inequality: roles, responsibilities, resistance”,
  160. (2000). Museums and the Interpretation of Visual Culture,
  161. (1992). Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge,
  162. (1984). Museums for a New Century. A Report of the Commission on Museums for a New Century, American Association of Museums,
  163. (2002). Museums in Family Life: An Ethnographic Case Study”,
  164. (1995). Museums in Partnership”,
  165. (2007). Museums, Prejudice and the Reframing of Difference,
  166. (2007). Museums, Social Responsibility and the Future We Desire”,
  167. (1998). Museums: Places of Learning, American Association of Museums,
  168. (2000). Musical Intervention and Children with Autism”,
  169. (1996). No Guts, No Glory: Hirotaka Takeuchi at The Masters Forum”.
  170. (2008). Norms and Deviations: Who’s to Say?”,
  171. (1998). Nothing About Us Without Us: Disability, Oppression and Empowerment,
  172. (1990). Objects of Knowledge,
  173. (2006). of Health and Human Services
  174. (1969). On Body and Mind”,
  175. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-ofpractice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation”,
  176. (1998). Organizing Knowledge”,
  177. (2001). Outcomes and Experience: New priorities for Museums”, Curator:
  178. (2000). Paradigms Shifted: Comprehending the Meaning from Without”,
  179. (1934). Patterns of Culture”,
  180. (1958). Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy,
  181. (2000). Perspective on Change”,
  182. (2002). Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah NJ and London.
  183. (2000). Perspectives on Outcome Based Evaluation for Libraries and Museums,
  184. (2002). Placing Objects Within Disciplinary Perspectives: Examples from History and Science”,
  185. (2003). Polanyi’s Social Construction of Personal Knowledge and the Theories of Situated Learning”,
  186. (1957). Problem Solving”,
  187. (2009). Promoting Success for All With Autism: An Inside View From Within The Autism Spectrum”, lecture,
  188. (1995). Public Institutions for Personal Learning: Establishing a Research Agenda, American Association of Museums,
  189. (2002). Qualitative Analysis: Practice and Innovation,
  190. (2002). Qualitative Researching, Second Edition,
  191. (2000). Reflection on ‘A Leader’s New Work: Building Learning Organizations’”,
  192. (2004). Reinventing the Museum: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on the Paradigm Shift, Rowman and
  193. (2002). Relationship Development Intervention and Children, Adolescents and Adults, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London and Philadelphia.
  194. (2004). Removing Barriers to Achievement: The Government’s Strategy for SEN”. http://inclusivesolutions.com/pdfs/removing%20barriers.pdf (accessed 3
  195. (2007). Research on Learning
  196. (1990). Rethinking the Museum and Other Meditations, Smithsonian Institution Press,
  197. (2006). School request for county sponsorship,
  198. (1950). Scientific Beliefs”,
  199. (2006). Simple Strategies That Work! Helpful Hints for All Educators of Students with Asperger Syndrome, High-Functioning Autism, and Related Disabilites, Autism Asperger Publishing Company,
  200. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation,
  201. (2007). Some Words on Learning”.
  202. (2003). Southeast Regional Museums Hub Education Programme Delivery Plan: Qualitative research with teachers, Hampshire Museums and Archives.
  203. (2000). Special Schools, Intensive Interaction and Inclusion”, paper presented at the International Special Ed Conference.
  204. (2001). Storytelling: Scientist’s Perspective”,
  205. (2007). Students, Teachers, and Museums: Toward an Intertwined Learning Circle”,
  206. (2007). Tacit Knowledge Revisited – We can Still Learn from Polanyi”,
  207. (2002). Teaching Tips for Children and Adults with Autism”.
  208. (1934). Techniques of the body”,
  209. (2000). The Age of Discontinuity : Guidelines to Our Changing Society, Transaction Publishing,
  210. (2005). The Art of Knowing:’ Social and Tacit
  211. (2009). The Autistic Self Advocate Community: Encouraging Self Advocacy
  212. (1998). The Coming of the New Organization”, Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management,
  213. (1998). The Concept of ‘Ba’: Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation”,
  214. (2007). The Conflict within: resistance to inclusion and other paradoxes in special education”,
  215. (1995). The Construction of Social Reality,
  216. (1995). The Constructivist Museum”,
  217. (2006). The Contribution of Diagnostic Substitution to the Growing Administrative Prevalence of Autism
  218. (1996). The Culture of Education,
  219. (2004). The Director’s Cut: Toward an Improved Understanding of Learning from
  220. (1994). The disabling society”,
  221. (1994). The enquiring visitor: usable learning theory for museum contexts”,
  222. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Currency Doubleday,
  223. (2003). The Future of Knowledge: Increasing Prosperity through Value Networks,
  224. (2003). The Good Research Guide: for small-scale social research projects, Second edition,
  225. (2004). The Importance of Constructivism and Constructivist Pedagogy For Disability Studies in Education”,
  226. (1995). The Influence of Culture on Learning
  227. (1994). The Institute for Learning Technologies: Pedagogy for the 21st Century”.
  228. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures, Basic Books,
  229. (1995). The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese companies create the dynasties of innovation,
  230. (1991). The Knowledge Creating Company”,
  231. (1997). The Knowledge Evolution: Expanding Organizational Intelligence, Butterworth-Heinemann,
  232. (2000). The Language of Objects”,
  233. (1990). The Leader’s New Work: Building Learning Organizations”,
  234. (2008). The meaning of autism: beyond disorder”,
  235. (1992). The Museum Experience, Whalesback Books,
  236. (2000). The Museum in Transition: A Philosophical Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press,
  237. (2002). The Philosophical Foundations of Disability Studies”,
  238. (2008). The Power of Communication,” keynote address,
  239. (2006). The Puzzle of Museum Educational Practice:
  240. (2009). The RDI Book: Forging New Pathways for Autism,
  241. (2000). The Researched Opinions on Research: disabled people and disability research”,
  242. (2006). The SCERTS Model: A Comprehensive Educational Approach for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. I Assessment, Paul H.
  243. (2002). The SCERTS Model: Enhancing Communication and Socioemotional Abilities of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder”,
  244. (2002). The social model of disability”, Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education. http://inclusion.uwe.ac.uk/inclusionweek/articles/socmod.htm (accessed 9
  245. (1966). The Tacit Dimension, Peter Smith,
  246. (2000). The Tacit Mode:
  247. (2009). The Tacit Mystery: Reconciling Different Approaches to Tacit Knowledge”,
  248. (2008). The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them”, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition.
  249. (2002). The therapeutic potential of museums as pathways to inclusion”,
  250. (1977). The Way of Discovery: An Introduction to the Thought of Michael Polanyi,
  251. (1973). Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture”,
  252. (1934). Thought and Language,
  253. (2000). Toward Reconciliation: A Role for Museums in a Divided Society”,
  254. (2004). Towards inclusive schools: a study of inclusive education in practice”,
  255. (1970). Transcendence and Self-Transcendence”,
  256. (1994). Transforming Qualitative Data: Description, Analysis, and Interpretation, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, London and
  257. (1996). True Needs True Partners,
  258. (1996). True Needs True Partners”,
  259. (2007). Understanding the Long-Term Impacts of Museums Experiences”,
  260. (2000). Using Humor to enable Flexibility and Social Empathy in Children with Asperger’s Syndrome: Some Practical Strategies”,
  261. (2003). Using Key instructional Elements to Systematically Promote Social Skill Generalization for Students with Challenging Behavior”,
  262. (1976). Weaving curriculum webs: The structure of nonlinear curriculum”.
  263. (2009). Web site. http://www.mla.gov.uk/ and http://www.inspiringlearningforall.gov.uk/introduction/what_do_we_mean/what_ do_we_mean/default.aspx (accessed 16
  264. (2002). Welcome to the Jenison Autism Journal Winter
  265. (1998). What is ABA?”
  266. (2003). What is Reflective Practice? The Center for Reflective Community Practice at MIT”. http://crcp.mit.edu/documents (accessed 6
  267. (1994). When Teaching Becomes Learning: A Theory and Practice of Teaching, Cassell, London and

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.