Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Landscapes of Maritime Complexity: Prehistoric Shell Work Sites of the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida

By Margo Schwadron

Abstract

The Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region of southwest Florida contains extensive prehistoric shell middens and mounds called shell works. Though shell work sites comprise some of the largest and most complicated prehistoric shell constructions in the world, prior to this study, none had been thoroughly examined in their spatial, temporal and functional contexts, and shell work sites remain very poorly understood. \ud This thesis aims to define the archaeological characteristics of shell work sites within the TTI region, including their spatial patterns, function, geographic extent, and temporal affiliation. Though shell work sites are complex, complicated sites that are analogous to palimpsests, I argue that shell work sites are more than just large shell midden accumulations, amalgamations of shell mounds, or assemblages of features; they are distinct, socially constructed prehistoric landscapes. In order to understand these complex histories, I contend that they need to be examined on several complementary temporal and spatial scales, and I incorporate a multi-scalar landscape approach. This includes examining shell work sites as individually constructed features and sites, as human centered social landscapes, and within a larger, regional settlement pattern context. \ud Central to my thesis is the hypothesis that shell work sites reflect changes in social complexity. I posit that shell work sites throughout the region are arranged in spatially similar patterns, ranging from small, simple shell midden rings, to massive islands completely constructed out of complex arrangements of shell. I test the theory that similarity or diversity in site layouts, and the presence or absence of certain architectural features reflects changes in community and social organization over time, and thus, social complexity

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8272

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1, the Past in the Past: the Reuse of Ancient Monuments):90-108.
  2. a A Cross-Cultural Study of Segmentation, Architecture, and the Use of Space. In Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space: An Interdisciplinary Cross-cultural Study,
  3. A Ceramic Sequence in South Florida. New Mexico Anthropologist III(3-
  4. A Comparison of Animal Bones from Six Indian Sites on Marco Island, Florida. Manuscript on file, Florida Museum of Natural History,
  5. A Complex Culture of the British Columbia Plateau: Traditional Stl'âatl'imx Resource Use.
  6. A Consideration of the Social Organization of the Shell Mound Archaic.
  7. A Cultural Resource Assessment of Horrs Island, Collier County,
  8. a Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory. In The Florida Indian and His Neighbors, edited by J.W.
  9. a Handbook of Landscape Archaeology. World Archaeological Congress, Left Coast Press,
  10. A History of the Timucua Indians and Missions.
  11. A Late Pleistocene Settlement in Chile, Volume 1: Paleoenvironmental and Site Context. Smithsonian Institution Press,
  12. a Maritime Landscapes of Complexity: Prehistoric Shell Works and the Rise of Social Complexity Among Coastal Foragers in South Florida. Report submitted to National Geographic Society, Committee for Research & Exploration,
  13. A Method for Reconstruction of Social Structure in Prehistoric Societies and Examples of Practical Application. In Social Space: Human Spatial Behavior in Dwellings and Settlements,
  14. A Mound Complex in Louisiana at 5400-5500 Years before the Present. Science 277(5333):1796-1799.
  15. A New Concept for the Busycon Shell Receptacle.
  16. A Phase I Archaeological Assessment of the Ten Thousand Islands Collier County, Florida (DHR Grant No.
  17. A Phenomenology of Landscape - Places, Paths and Monuments.
  18. A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and Periods in Florida.
  19. A Reinterpretation of Some Bay Area Shellmound Sites: a View from the Mortuary Complex from CA-Ala-329, the Ryan Mound.
  20. A Survey and Assessment of Archaeological Resources on Marco Island, Collier County Florida.
  21. A Tale of Three Sites: The Monumentalization of Celtic Oppida and the Politics of Collective Memory and Identity. World Archaeology 30(1, the Past in the Past: the Reuse of Ancient Monuments):72-89.
  22. a The Archaeology of Tribal Societies,
  23. a The Paleoindian Colonization of Eastern North America: A View from the Southeastern United States.
  24. a The Zooarchaeology of Charlotte Harbor's Prehistoric Maritime Adaptation: Spatial and Temporal Perspectives.
  25. a Understanding the Evolution of Intermediate Societies. In Emergent Complexity: the Evolution of Intermediate Societies, edited by J.E.
  26. Aboriginal Canoe Use in Southwest Florida.
  27. Adelantado, Governor and Captain-general of Florida: Memorial. Translated with notes by
  28. Affluent Foragers of Mesolthic Southern Scandinavia.
  29. Affluent Foragers: Pacific Coasts East
  30. (1991). Altering the Earth: The Origins of Monuments in Britain and Continental Europe: The Rhind Lectures
  31. An Ancient Seascape: The Social Context of Seafaring in the Early Bronze Age. World Archaeology 35(3,
  32. An Archaeological and Historical Survey of Bonita Springs, Parcel Three,
  33. An Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin.
  34. An Archaeological Survey of Collier County, Florida: Phase I. A.H.C.
  35. An Archaic and Woodland Period Fish Weir Complex in Central Maine.
  36. An Assessment of Known Archaeological Sites in Charlotte Harbor State Reserve. Archaeological and Historical Conservancy,
  37. Analysis of the Cultural Materials from the Cabbage-Rattlesnake Site (Da125). Manuscript on file, National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  38. Analyzing Activity Areas: an Ethnoarchaeological Study of the Use of Space.
  39. Anasazi Communities in the Red Rock Plateau, Southeastern Utah. In Reconstructing Prehistoric Pueblo Societies,
  40. Anasazi Ritual landscapes. In Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, edited
  41. Ancient Art of the Florida Peninsula: 500 B.C. to A.D.
  42. Ancient Canals in Florida.
  43. Ancient Canals on the Southwest Coast of Florida.
  44. Ancient Mounds of Interior Florida. Forest and Stream 6:329-331.
  45. and Dogs' Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation.
  46. and Fishing in
  47. and Holocene Coastal Palaeoeconomies: A Reconsideration of the Molluscan Evidence from Northern Spain.
  48. and Identity: An Interpretative Archaeology.
  49. and Masonry: The Late Bonito Chacoan Landscape.
  50. and Sacred Spaces: Searching for an Architectural Grammar.
  51. and Status on the Northwest Coast: Reconciling Archeological, Ethnographic, and Ethnohistorical Records of the Tlingit. American Anthropologist 95(3):631-652.
  52. and the Memorialization of Landscape. In Handbook of Landscape Archaeology, edited by
  53. Animal Bones Associated with Two Indian Sites on
  54. Anthropological Society, Inc.,
  55. Antiquities of the Florida West Coast.
  56. Antiquities of the Southern Indians, Particularly of the Georgia Tribes.
  57. Aquaculture in Ancient Hawaii. BioScience 37(5):320-331.
  58. Archaeological Approaches to East Africa's Changing Seascapes.
  59. Archaeological Approaches to the Present: Models for Reconstructing the Past.
  60. (2003). Archaeological Excavations at the Pineland Site (8LL33): The Surf Clam Ridge Project,
  61. Archaeological Landscapes: Constructed, Conceptualized, Ideational. In Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives,
  62. Archaeological Monitoring of Water Utility Trenching on Chokoloskee Island, Collier County,
  63. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives.
  64. Archaeologies of Place and Landscape. In Archaeological Theory Today, edited by I. Hodder,
  65. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 21:69-187.
  66. Archaeology and Recent Ecological Changes.
  67. Archaeology as Human Ecology: Method and Theory for a Contextual nuto, Approach.
  68. Archaeology of Communities: New World Perspective.
  69. Archaeology of Everglades National Park: A Synthesis. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  70. Archaeology of the Everglades.
  71. Archaeology of the Georgia Coastal Zone.
  72. Archaeology of the Glades Area. Manuscript on file, National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  73. Archaeology of the Southeastern United States, Paleoindian to World War I.
  74. Archaeology: A Critique.
  75. Archaeology: an Introduction to Fieldwork Techniques on PostRoman Landscapes. David & Charles,
  76. Archaeology: Introduction. In Handbook of Landscape Archaeology, edited by
  77. Archaeozoology of South Florida. Manuscript on file, National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  78. Archaic Period Canoes from Newnans Lake,
  79. Archaic Sedentism on the Florida Coast: A Case Study from Horr's Island.
  80. Archeological Notes on Lower Fisheating Creek. The Florida Anthropologist (4)50-66. n.d. The Archeology of the Glades Area,
  81. Architectural Features at Fig Island. In The Fig Island Ring Complex (38CH42): Coastal Adaptation and the Question of Ring Function
  82. Architecture and the Use of Space: An Interdisciplinary Crosscultural Study.
  83. Architecture as Landscape Practice. In Handbook of Landscape Archaeology, edited by
  84. Architecture of the Early Valdivia Village.
  85. Architecture, Subsistence Economy, and Other Artifacts of a Preceramic Maritime Chiefdom.
  86. Architecture: An Example from the Raffman Site, Northeast Louisiana. American Antiquity 69(3):514-532.
  87. b Stability and Change in Chiefdom-Level Societies: An Examination of Mississippian Political Evolution in the South Atlantic Slope. In Lamar Archaeology: Mississippian Chiefdoms in the Deep South,
  88. b The Key Marco Site. Ten Thousand Islands, Southwest Florida Coast. In Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1: Northeast and Southeast,
  89. b Zooarchaeology of Charlotte Harbor. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W.H.
  90. Beyond Affluent Foragers"?: Looking Back at the Original Affluent Foragers Concept. In Beyond Affluent Foragers: Rethinking HunterGatherer Complexity,
  91. Big Heart? A Mesoamerican View of the Emergence of Complex Society.
  92. Books,
  93. Buddhist Landscapes of East Asia. In Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives,
  94. Building and Subsistence During the Late Weeden Island Period (ca.A.D. 700-1000) at Big Mound Key (8CH10),
  95. Buried Treasure: Archaeology and Adventure in the Nineteenth Century.
  96. c The Archaeology of Complex Hunter-Gatherers.
  97. Calusa Canals in Southwestern Florida: Routes of Tribute and Exchange. The Florida Anthropologist (42)89-130.
  98. Camp Life in Florida: A Handbook for Sportsman and Settlers. Forest and
  99. Carrion Eaters, and the Archaeology of Aquatic Adaptations. American Antiquity 66(3):413-432.
  100. Centering the Ancestors: Cemeteries, Mounds, and Sacred Landscapes of the Ancient North American Midcontinent.
  101. Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Central Florida West Coast.
  102. Changing Pasts and Socio-Political Cognition in Late Bronze Age Cyprus. World Archaeology 30(1, the Past in the Past: the Reuse of Ancient Monuments):39-58.
  103. Cnoc Coig: the Spatial Analysis of a Late Mesolithic Shell Midden in Western Scotland.
  104. Coastal Adaptations near Point Conception, California, with Particular Regard to Shellfish Exploitation. American Antiquity 53(1):36-51.
  105. Coastal Hunter-Gatherers and Social Evolution: Marginal or Central? Before Farming
  106. Cognitive Archaeology. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 3:260-269.
  107. Complex Hunter-Gatherer-Fishers of Prehistoric California: Chiefs, Specialists, and Maritime Adaptations of the Channel Islands.
  108. Complex Hunter-Gatherers in Evolution and History: A North American Perspective.
  109. Considerations of the Sambaquis of the Brazilian coast. (Archaeological Evidence from Hunting and Gathering
  110. Cosmological Order Expressed in Prehistoric Ceremonial Centers.
  111. Creating Chiefdoms: The Puget Sound Case. Ethnohistory
  112. Creek in Northwest Florida. In A World Engraved,
  113. Crossing the Symbolic Rubicon in the Southeast. In Signs of Power: The Rise of Cultural Complexity in the Southeast, edited by J.L.
  114. Cultural Affiliations in Relation to Adjacent Areas.
  115. Cultural Ecology: A Multidimensional Ecological Orientation. In Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes,
  116. Cultural Landscapes on Garua Island,
  117. Culture Change in Prehistoric Puerto Rico: A View from the Community.
  118. Culture in Central East Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
  119. d'Escalente Fontaneda respecting Florida.
  120. Deposits as Coastal Resources.
  121. Deposits of the United States.
  122. Dimensional Analysis of Behavior and Site Structure: Learning from an Eskimo Hunting Stand.
  123. Don't Believe in Archaic Ceremonial Mounds and Why We Should: The Case From Florida.
  124. Early South American Maritime Adaptations.
  125. Environment in the Domain of the Calusa.
  126. Estuarine Environments: Sedimentology,
  127. Everglades National Park Archaeological Base Mapping Part I. Manuscript on file, National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  128. Evolution of "Tribal" Social Networks: Theory and Prehistoric North American Evidence.
  129. Excavation at the Harris Creek Site. The Florida Anthropologist
  130. Excavations at the Granada Site.
  131. Experiencing the Past? The Development of Phenomenological Archaeology in British Prehistory.
  132. Explanatory/Predictive Models of Hunter-Gatherer Adaptation.
  133. Exploration of Ancient Key-Dweller Remains on the Gulf Coast of Florida.
  134. Exploration of Ancient Key-Dwellers' Remains on the Gulf Coast of Florida.
  135. Exploring the Topography of Mind: GIS, Social Space and Archaeology.
  136. Factional Competition and the Political Evolution of Mississippian Chiefdoms in the Southeastern United States.
  137. Faunal Analysis of Remnant Mound Column Samples.
  138. Faunal Remains from Seven Sites in the Big Cypress National Preserve. Manuscript on file, Florida Museum of Natural History,
  139. Fishing on the Pacific Coast of the Americas: Perspectives from Daisy Cave,
  140. Fishing Strategies on the California Coast: Evidence from CA-SBA-2057.
  141. Fishweir, Santa Fe River, Alachua County, Florida. Site Record on file, Florida Division of Historical Resources,
  142. Fishweirs: A World Perspective with Emphasis on the Fishweirs of Mississippi,
  143. (1992). Florida’s Cultural Heritage: A View of the Past (draft,
  144. for the UCLA Departmment of Anthropology by Undena Publications,
  145. Foragers. In Beyond Affluent Foragers: Rethinking HunterGatherer Complexity, edited by
  146. Foraging and Collecting: Evolutionary Change in Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems.
  147. Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change.
  148. Foundations of Prehistoric Social Inequality. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T.D.
  149. From Explorations in Florida.
  150. From Objects to the Cultural System: A Middle Archaic Columella Extraction Site on Useppa Island,
  151. Frontier: The History of Collier County. Copeland Studies in Florida History.
  152. Geografía y Descripción Universal de las Indias. Fortanet,
  153. Geography in Florida Prehistory.
  154. Government Printing Office,
  155. Harbor Mounds Survey, Phase II Report of Investigations. Florida Museum of Natural History,
  156. Historic Indian Shell Mounds May End Up on Florida Roads.
  157. Holocene Sedimentation and Coastal Response to Rising Sea Level Along Subtropical Low Energy Coast, Ten Thousand Islands, Southwest Florida.
  158. How Chiefs Come to Power: the Political Economy in Prehistory.
  159. Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence and Settlement: A Predictive Model.
  160. Identifying Ancient Sacred Landscapes in Australia: From Physical to Social. In Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives,
  161. Identity among Estuarine Fishing Communities: Interpreting the Archaeology of Early Medieval Fish Weirs.
  162. Imagining Calabria: A GIS Approach to Neolithic Landscapes.
  163. In Missions to the Calusa, edited by J.H.
  164. Inlet I (8PB34): A Test Case in the Use of Ceramic Frequencies and Discriminant Analysis in Determining Cultural Affinity. Unpublished Master’s thesis,
  165. Interaction. And Tribal ‘Cycling’: The Transition to Copper Age on the Great Hungarian Plain.
  166. Introduction to "Landscapes over Time."
  167. Introduction: Issues in the Archaeology of Tropical Polities.
  168. Introduction: Seeing Land from the Sea. World Archaeology 35(3,
  169. Investigation of the Woodland Period Along the South Carolina Coast.
  170. Islands and Coasts: Current Perspectives on the Role of the Sea in Human Prehistory.
  171. Journeys through the Prehistoric Seascape of Sicily. In Prehistoric Journeys, edited by
  172. Landscape as Memory: The Mapping of Process and its Representation in a Melanesian Society. In Landscape: Politics and Perspectives,
  173. Landscapes as Social Geography. In Handbook of Landscape Archaeology,
  174. Landscapes in Orkney and Northern Scotland. World Archaeology 35(3):371-384.
  175. Levels and Human Occupation at Southwest Florida's Wightman Site. The Florida Anthropologist 47(2):161-179.
  176. life; a Selection from the Writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer.
  177. Location Theory and Complex Chiefdoms: A Mississippian Example. In Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by B.D.
  178. Making Space.
  179. Mapping Areas of Historical/Archaeological Probability in Collier County, Florida. Archaeological Consultants Incorporated,
  180. Mapuche Ceremonial Landscape, Social Recruitment and Resource Rights.
  181. Marginalization, and Economic Process. In Fundamental Issues in Archaeology, edited by T.D.
  182. Marine-Resource Value and the Priority of Coastal Settlement: A California Perspective. American Antiquity 56(3):419-443.
  183. Mariners to Complex Hunter-Gatherers: The Archaeology of the California Channel Islands.
  184. Megaliths of Wales: A Dreaming Too Far?
  185. Memory and History: Anthropological Perspectives.
  186. Men: A Critique of the Maritime Hypothesis of State Origins on the Coast of Peru. American Anthropologist 83(1):93-120.
  187. Middens in Atlantic Europe. Oxbow,
  188. Middens, and Rapid Climate Change during the Archaic-Woodland Transition in the Southeastern United States. In Trend, Tradition, and Turmoil: What Happened to the Southeastern Archaic,
  189. Middle Archaic Ceremonialism at Tick Island,
  190. Miscellaneous Investigation in Florida.
  191. Missions to the Calusa.
  192. Monumental Architecture: A Thermodynamic Explanation of Symbolic Behavior.
  193. Monuments and the Monumental):190-205.
  194. Monuments and the past in Early Anglo-Saxon England.
  195. Monuments as Landscape: Creating the Centre of the World in Late Neolithic Orkney.
  196. Monuments from the Inside: The Case of the Irish Megalithic Tombs. World Archaeology 22(2, Monuments and the Monumental):168-178.
  197. Monuments in an Island Society: The Maltese Context. World Archaeology
  198. Mounds and Mortuary Behavior in the San Francisco Bay Area.
  199. Mounds and Mounded Landscapes in the San Francisco Bay Area: An Integrated Approach.
  200. Mounds as Burial Mounds: A Revision of the Shell Mound Archaic.
  201. National Preserve Archeological Survey: Season 5. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  202. National Preserve Cultural Resource Inventory Season 4. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  203. Natural Areas of Native North America.
  204. Navels of the Earth: Sedentism in Early Mound-Building Cultures in the Lower Mississippi Valley. World Archaeology 38(2):311-329.
  205. New Directions in Poverty Point Settlement Archaeology: An Example from Northeast Louisiana. In The Poverty Point Culture: Local Manifestations, Subsistence Practices,
  206. New Hypothesis for the Demise of the Shell Mound Archaic.
  207. Notes on the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida.
  208. On Preagricultural Coastal Adaptations.
  209. On the Evolution of Complex Societies: Essays in Honor of Harry Hoijer.
  210. On the Pleistocene Antiquity of Monte Verde,
  211. Order: Approaches to Social Space.
  212. Organization: an Evolutionary Perspective. Random House,
  213. Paleoindian Aggregation and Social Context at Bull Brook. American Antiquity 74(3):423-447.
  214. Palimpsests and the Archaeology of Time.
  215. Pathways to a Panoramic Past: A Brief History of European Landscape.
  216. Pathways to Power: Principles for Creating Socioeconomic Inequalities. In Fundamental Issues in Archaeology, edited by T.D.
  217. Phenomenology in Practice: Towards a Methodology for a 'Subjective' Approach.
  218. Place in Landscape Archaeology: A Western Philosophical Prelude.
  219. Politics and Perspectives.
  220. Post-Modernism: The Case of Wales.
  221. Practice in the Archaic Southeast. In North American Archaeology,
  222. Pre-Columbian Trade in Eastern United States as Viewed from Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 3:192-108.
  223. Pre-Glades Settlement and Subsistence Patterns on
  224. Precedent in Environmental Design.
  225. Precolumbian Architecture in Eastern North America.
  226. Prehistoric Circular Earthworks in South Florida.
  227. Prehistoric Fishweirs in Eastern North America. Unpublished Ph.D.
  228. Prehistoric Hawaiian Fishponds. Science,
  229. Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: the Emergence of Cultural Complexity.
  230. Prehistoric Landscapes of Complexity: Archaic and Woodland Period Shell Works, Shell Rings, and Tree Islands of the Everglades, South Florida. In Trend, Tradition, and Turmoil: What Happened to the Southeastern Archaic, edited by David Hurst Thomas
  231. Prehistoric Man in South Florida. In Environments of South Florida, Past and Present, edited by P.J.
  232. Prehistoric Remains in Florida. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report for
  233. Prehistoric Shellfish Exploitation in Coastal New York.
  234. Prehistoric Subsistence Strategies and Settlement Patterns in the Lake Okeechobee Basin of the South Florida Peninsula.
  235. Prehistory: an Investigation of Method.
  236. Prehistory: Cultural Resource Management
  237. (1982). Prestate Political Formations. In On the Evolution of Complex Societies: Essays in Honor of Harry Hoijer,
  238. Production Among the Calusa of South Florida. In History, Evolution and Social Change, edited by
  239. Production on the Pacific Coast: The Northwest Coast and California in Comparative Perspective.
  240. Questioning Complexity: The Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers of Sapelo Island,
  241. Radiocarbon Dating on St. Catherine’s Island. In Native American Landscapes of St Catherine’s Island,
  242. Recollections of Environmental Change in the Ten Thousand Island, Florida Bay and the Everglades: The Oral History and Social Issues of User Groups in Southwest Florida and the Everglades. Manuscript on file,
  243. Reflections on the Making of a 'Royal Site' in Early Ireland. World Archaeology 30(1, the Past in the Past: the Reuse of Ancient Monuments):127-141.
  244. (1996). reflexive GIS: Exploring Visualization and VRML. Internet Archaeology,
  245. Regional Dynamics: Burgundian Landscapes in Historical Perspective.
  246. Report of the Shell Heaps of Tampa Bay,
  247. Report. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  248. Returning to Nothing: the Meaning of Lost Places.
  249. Rewriting Landscape: Incorporating Sacred Landscapes into Cultural Traditions. World Archaeology 30(1, the Past in the Past: the Reuse of Ancient Monuments):159-176.
  250. Rings for Social Inequality. In Signs of Power: The Rise of Cultural Complexity in the Southeast, edited by J.L.
  251. Rings of the Southeastern U.S. National Historic Landmarks, Historic Contexts. National Register of Historic Places,
  252. Ritual Pig Sacrifice, and Ideological Power in Ancient Hawai'i.
  253. Ruined Stones: Enclosures, Tombs and Natural Places in the Neolithic of South-West England. World Archaeology 30(1, The Past in the Past: The Reuse of Ancient Monuments):13-22.
  254. Sacred Landscapes: Constructed and Conceptualized. In Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives,
  255. Seascapes and as Spiritscapes. In Handbook of Landscape Archaeology, edited by
  256. Shellworks Site. National Register of Historic Places Documentation Form.
  257. Site and System: Shell Midden Economies in Scotland,
  258. Site: A Study of Prehistoric Culture and Environment on Sanibel Island,
  259. (1934). Smithsonian Archeological Projects Conducted under the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 1933-1934. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report
  260. Social Relationships and the Exploitation of Animals: Anthropological Reflections on Prehistory. In Animals and Archaeology 3: Early Herders and Their Flocks,
  261. Some Archaeological Correlates of Ranked Societies.
  262. Some Characteristics of the Indian Earth and Shell Mounds on the Atlantic Coast of Florida.
  263. Some Dimensions of Variability in the Social Organization of Community Space among Foragers. In Ethnoarchaeological Approaches to Mobile Campsites: Hunter-Gatherer and Pastoralist Case Studies, edited by
  264. Southeastern Archaic Mounds. In Archaeology of the Mid-Holocene Southeast, edited by
  265. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture.
  266. Spatial Boundaries and Social Dynamics: Case Studies from FoodProducing Societies.
  267. Spatial Relationships and the Archaeology of South Island Maori Fishing. World Archaeology 35(3,
  268. Spatial Structure and Process of Nonagricultural Production.
  269. Specialization and the Emergence of Political Complexity in Southwest Florida.
  270. Spiritscapes, Maritime Rituals and the Archaeology of Australian Indigenous Seascapes. World Archaeology 35(3, Seascapes):329-
  271. Stories from the Landscape: Archaeologies of Inhabitation.
  272. Stratigraphic Tests in the Everglades National Park.
  273. Stratigraphy of Indian "Mounds" in the Charlotte Harbor Area, Florida: Sealevel Rise and Paleoenvironments.
  274. Studies: The Past Decade.
  275. Subsistence Economies and the Origins of Andean Complex Societies. American Anthropologist 85(3):545-562.
  276. Subsistence-Settlement Systems and Intersite Variability in the Moroiso Phase of the Early Jomon Period of Japan.
  277. Surrounding the Sacred. In Signs of Power: The Rise of Cultural Complexity in the Southeast, edited by J.L.
  278. Survey, and Landscape Archaeology on the Island of Kythera,
  279. Symbolic Orders in the Use of Domestic Space. In Man, Settlement and Urbanism, edited by
  280. Technological Investigations of Pottery Variability in Southwest Florida. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W.H.
  281. The Anthropology of Complex Societies. Biennial Review of Anthropology (6)80-131.
  282. The Antiquity of Tlingit Settlement on Admiralty Island, Southeast Alaska. American Antiquity 54(3):534-543.
  283. The Archaeology of Ancient China. 3rd ed.
  284. The Archaeology of Aquatic Adaptations: Paradigms for a New Millennium.
  285. The Archaeology of Islands.
  286. The Archaeology of Prehistoric Coastlines.
  287. The Archaeology of Regions: From Discrete Analytical Toolkit to Ubiquitous Spatial Perspective.
  288. The Archaeology of Useppa Island.
  289. The Archeological Salvage of the Bay West Site, Collier County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 34(2):39-58.
  290. The Archeological Survey of Big Cypress National Preserve: Phase 1. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  291. The Archeological Survey of Big Cypress National Preserve: Phase 2. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,
  292. The Berber House or the World Reversed. In Exchanges and Communications, edited by
  293. The Big Cypress National Preserve: Archeological Survey Season 3. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological
  294. The Boston Back Bay Fish Weirs. In Hidden Dimensions: the Cultural Significance of Wetland Archaeology, edited by K.N.
  295. The Boylston Street Fishweir, a Study of the Archaeology, Biology, and Geology of a Site on Boylston Street in the Back Bay District of
  296. The Calusa Social Formation in Protohistoric South Florida. In Power Relations and State Formation, edited by T.C.
  297. The Calusa: A Stratified, Nonagricultural Society (with notes on sibling marriage).
  298. The Calusa. In Tacachale: Essays on the Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia During the Historic Period, edited by J.T.
  299. The Case for Archaic Mounds in Southeastern Louisiana.
  300. The Collapse of Complex Societies.
  301. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations.
  302. The Dead Must be Fed: Symbolic Meanings of the Shell Mounds of the San Francisco Bay Area.
  303. The Design of Mississippian Towns. In Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces: Searching for an Architectural Grammar, edited by R.B.
  304. The Determinants of Settlement Patterns. In Settlement Archaeology,
  305. The Development of Cultural Complexity in Southwest Florida: Elements of a Critique.
  306. The Development of Some Aboriginal Pottery of the Central Peninsular Gulf Coast of Florida.
  307. The Early Mesoamerican Village.
  308. The Emergence of Inequality: A Focus on Strategies and Processes. In Fundamental Issues in Archaeology, edited by T.D.
  309. The Evolution of Chiefdoms. Current Anthropology 30(1):84-88.
  310. The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers in the North Pacific: An Archaeological Case Study from Kodiak Island,
  311. The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the North Pacific.
  312. (1973). The Evolution of Hawaiian Aquaculture.
  313. The Evolution of Human Societies: From Foraging Group to Agrarian State.
  314. The Evolution of Social Ranking on the Northwest Coast of North America.
  315. The Evolution of the Calusa, a Non-Agricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast.
  316. The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast.
  317. The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms.
  318. The Evolution of Tribal Social Organization in the Southeastern United States.
  319. The Fig Island Ring Complex (38CH42): Coastal Adaptation and the Question of Ring Function in the Late Archaic. Report submitted to South Carolina Department of Archives and History under grant
  320. The Fishweirs at Atherley Narrows,
  321. The Florida Anthropologist
  322. The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways - Kelly,
  323. The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. Smithsonian Institution Press,
  324. The Form and Function of South Carolina's Early Woodland Ring Middens.
  325. The Great Temple of Tenochtitlâan: Center and Periphery in the Aztec World.
  326. The Guana Shell Ring. Northeast Florida Anthropological Society,
  327. The History of the Caribby Islands, viz., Barbados, S'Christophers, S'Vincents,
  328. The Inland Shore Fishery of the Northern Great Lakes: Its Development and Importance in Prehistory.
  329. The Josslyn Island Mound and its Role in the Investigation of Southwest Florida's Past. Institute of Archaeology and
  330. (2009). The Key Marco Site, A Planned Shell Mound Community on the Southwest Florida Coast.
  331. The Life-Histories of Megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany). World Archaeology 30(1, The Past in the Past: The Reuse of Ancient Monuments):23-38.
  332. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History 1300-1850. Basic Books,
  333. The Making of the English Landscape. Hodder and
  334. The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: A Reconsideration of the Evidence. American Antiquity 46(4):806-821.
  335. The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization.
  336. The Mississippian Town Plan and Cultural Landscape of Cahokia, Illinois. In Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces: Searching for an Architectural Grammar, edited by R.B.
  337. The Monumentality of Death: The Character of Early Bronze Age Mortuary Mounds
  338. the Neolithic Social Grouping: Examples from the New World.
  339. The Northwest Coast: Complex Hunter-Gatherers, Ecology, and Social Evolution. Annual Review of Anthropology 23:209-229.
  340. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences.
  341. The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast.
  342. the Reproduction of the Ancestral Past. In The Anthropology of Landscape,
  343. The Ring Villages of Central Brazil: A Challenge for Amazonian Archaeology. Latin American Antiquity 10(1):3-23.
  344. The Rising Tide: Archaeology and Coastal Landscapes. Oxbow Books,
  345. The Role of Molluscs in Coastal Economies.
  346. The Role of Shellfish in Prehistoric Economies: A Protein Perspective.
  347. The Science of Culture: a Study of Man and Civilization.
  348. The Significance of Monuments: On the Shaping of Human Experience
  349. The Social Logic of Space.
  350. The Spatial Distribution of Glades Period Archeological Sites within the Big
  351. The Stonehenge Riverside Project and New Discoveries.
  352. The Temporality of the Landscape. World Archaeology 25(2, Conceptions of Time and Ancient Society):152-174.
  353. The Transitional Period in Florida.
  354. Theoretical Issues in the Analysis of Spatial Patterning. In Regional Dynamics: Burgundian Landscapes in Historical Perspective edited by C.L.
  355. Thinking about Landscape. In Archaeology: The Key Concepts, edited by C. Renfrew
  356. Time and History.
  357. Time in South Florida Prehistory. Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society,
  358. Topographic Mapping and Archaeological Reconnaissance of Mound Key State Archaeological Site (8LL2),
  359. Towards Social Analysis in Archaeology: Celtic Society in the Iron Age of the Upper Thames Valley.
  360. Traditions in Architecture:
  361. Transformation of a Regional Economy - Sociopolitical Evolution and the Production of Valuables in Southern California.
  362. Transformations: Power and Labor among Complex HunterGatherers and Other Intermediate Societies. In Emergent Complexity: the Evolution of Intermediate Societies,
  363. Transportation Innovation and Social Complexity among Maritime HunterGatherer Societies.
  364. Visions of the Cosmos: Ceremonial Landscapes and Civic Plans.
  365. World Archaeology 33(2, Archaeology

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.