Location of Repository

Directing democracy: the case of the John Lewis partnership

By Abigail Cathcart

Abstract

The John Lewis Partnership was founded in 1929 as an “experiment in industrial democracy” (Lewis, 1948). This thesis explores the meaning of democracy in the Partnership and examines the wider implications of the case. It argues that democracy in work should be viewed as something which is intrinsically valuable because of its connection to furthering justice, equality, freedom and the rights and interests of all workers.\ud The thesis makes three main contributions. Firstly, the production of a historically situated exploration of democratic participation in the John Lewis Partnership – the largest co-owned business in the UK. Secondly, an analysis of power relations in the organisation and an examination of the ways in which disciplinary power and regimes of truth both constrain democratic practice and offer the potential for resistance and challenge. Thirdly, the thesis challenges critics of the Partnership who have dismissed it as a form of “pseudo democracy” (Pateman, 1970: 73) and “suffocatingly paternalistic” (Ramsay, 1980: 52).\ud Despite the constant threat of degeneration and dilution of the value framework laid down by the founder, the Partnership’s continued commitment to democratic participation provides an important contribution to our understanding of co-ownership and democratically organised forms of work. The analysis shows that management have attempted to direct and define democracy in a highly constrained way, assigning it an instrumental purpose, and privileging the ‘business case’ for democratic engagement. However, the study emphasises that the meaning of democracy is heavily contested and fraught with contradictions and paradoxes. This creates a space in which understandings of equality, solidarity and democracy are debated by the 69,000 employees who are co-owners of the business

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7811

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1890) Good men and true: Biographies of workers in the fields of beneficence and benevolence (4th), London: T Fisher Unwin.
  2. (2009c) ‘John Lewis ignored textile firms alert’,
  3. (Ed)(1984) The Foucault Reader: An introduction to Foucault’s thought,
  4. (1828). 1’ In: Mercer,T.W.
  5. (1939). A Chance for Everybody: A Liberal basis for the organization of work, (Translated from the original French by Mackay), London: Chatto and Windus.
  6. (1975). A Contribution to the Political Theory of Organizational Democracy’,
  7. (1927). A new view of society and other writings by Robert Owen, London: JM Dent and Sons: Everyman’s Library.
  8. (1927). A new view of society and other writings by Robert Owen: Introduction by GDH Cole, London: JM Dent and Sons: Everyman’s Library.
  9. (2005). A stake in the Post: Making employees stakeholders in Royal Mail, London: Job Ownership Limited, http://www.employeeownership.co.uk/about.htm. [accessed 23
  10. (2005). Action Leaning in
  11. (2002). Advocates, Critics and Union Involvement in Workplace Partnership: Irish Airports’,
  12. (2002). Against Management,
  13. (1994). Authority and Democracy: A general theory of government and management,
  14. (2007). Balance and Partnership in retail planning’,
  15. (2009). Balancing the democracy dilemmas: Experiences of three women workers’ cooperatives in Hong Kong’,
  16. (1975). Body/Power’, In: Gordon, C (Ed)
  17. (2002). Business Ethics and Business History: Neglected Dimensions in Management Education’,
  18. (1998). Business Legends: Never Knowingly Undersold’, Management Today,
  19. (1992). Business Performance in the Retail Sector: The Experience of the John Lewis Partnership,
  20. (2003). Business Research Methods,
  21. (2006). Business: Selling a different kind of capitalism’,
  22. (2004). C-charge protest does not check out’,
  23. (1954). Capital: A critique of political economy. Vol. One (Translated from the third German edition by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling and edited by Frederick Engels),
  24. (2004). Changing Patterns of Employee Voice: Case Studies from the UK and Republic of Ireland’,
  25. (1993). Co-operation or control? Capital restructuring and labour relations on the docks’,
  26. (1969). Co-ownership, Co-operation and Control: An Industrial Objective, London: Longmans,
  27. (1997). Collective bargaining, democracy and efficiency in the British and US workplace’,
  28. (1983). Common ownership: An effective means of social change. The experience of the
  29. (2008). Company magazines and the creation of industrial cooperation: A case study from the Southern textile industry, 1880-1940’, Management and Organizational History,
  30. (1978). Conceptual Dimensions and Boundaries of Participation in Organizations: A Critical Evaluation’,
  31. (2007). Contemporary developments in information and consultation’,
  32. (2004). Contradictions of democracy in a workers’
  33. (2006). Corporate Governance and the Mondragon Cooperatives’,
  34. (2004). Covering Memo on the Democracy Project Survey,
  35. (1998). Creating a high-performance work culture at Chaparall Steel’,
  36. (1963). Cybernetics Realized: The John Lewis Partnership System’,
  37. (1977). Cycles of Control: Worker Participation in
  38. (2002). Dead Selves’:
  39. (1995). Democracy in the Workplace: Theory and Practice from the Perspective of Communication’,
  40. (1995). Development or convergence? Change and stability in a common ownership firm over three decades 1960-1989’,
  41. (2004). Direct Participation and Involvement’,
  42. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The birth of the prison. (Translated from the French by Alan Sheridan),
  43. (1987). Disciplining the Shop floor: A Comparison of the disciplinary effects of managerial psychology and financial accounting’,
  44. (2003). Disconnected capitalism: or why employers can’t keep their side of the bargain’,
  45. (1988). Does Employee Ownership Improve Company Performance? The Case of the John Lewis Partnership, London: Partnership Research Ltd.
  46. (1993). Doing Critical Ethnography,
  47. (2007). Doing Formal Grounded Theory: A Proposal,
  48. (2008). Doing Qualitative Research: A Comprehensive Guide,
  49. (2000). Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook,
  50. (1922). Dr William King and the Co-operator: 1828-1830,
  51. (2009). Email to Abby Cathcart from
  52. (2006). Embedding employee involvement and participation (EIP) at work’,
  53. (2005). Employee involvement and participation’,
  54. (2009). Employee Ownership Association
  55. (2006). Employee participation in Britain: From collective bargaining and industrial democracy to employee involvement and social partnership – Two decades of Manchester/Loughborough research’,
  56. (2006). Employee Participation’,
  57. (2007). Employee Representation in Non-Union Firms,
  58. (1999). Employee stock ownership plans: Union influence and stakeholder interests’,
  59. (1991). Employee-ownership: A conceptual model of process and effects’,
  60. (2000). Employees and High-Performance Work Systems: Testing Inside the Black Box’,
  61. (2004). Emporium of glamour and sanctum of scientific management: the early twentieth century department store’,
  62. (1997). Empowerment: theory and practice’,
  63. (1992). Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High Tech Corporation,
  64. (1975). Ernest Bader Common Ownership Lecture: Partnership not Participation’,
  65. (1812). Essays on the formation of character’,
  66. (1998). Ethics and Organization,
  67. (2004). Ethnography’, In: Silverman,
  68. (1970). Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to decline in Firms, Organizations and States, London:
  69. (2003). Experiment at Work: Explosions and Experiences at the Most Frightening Company on Earth,
  70. (1912). Experiments in industrial organization,
  71. (2009). Exploring self-discipline, subjectivity and co-operative work’,
  72. (1954). Fairer Shares: A possible advance in civilization and perhaps the only alternative to Communism,
  73. (2004). FN03 Northern Branch Annual General Meeting,
  74. (1992). Focus: The Registrar in the John Lewis Partnership: a lesson in loyalty’,
  75. (1997). Fool’s gold? European works Councils and workplace democracy’,
  76. (1985). Foreword’ In:
  77. (2002). Foucault and History in
  78. (2005). Foucault: A very short introduction,
  79. (1985). Founders and the elusiveness of a cultural legacy’ in:
  80. (1989). Frameworks of Power,
  81. (2002). Free to choose: building the democratic enterprise in eight easy steps’, http:/www.smartmanager.com [accessed 15
  82. (2000). Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections, and Imaginations in a Postmodern World, London:
  83. (2006). Good times roll at hi-tech John Lewis: Interview with Stuart Hampson’, The Observer: Business and Media,
  84. (2004). Governance of the Mondragon Corporación Cooperativa’,
  85. (1999). Hampson: Never knowingly upstaged’,
  86. (2001). High Performance and the transformation of work? The implications of alternative work practices for the experience and outcomes of work’,
  87. (2009). Hire the American dream: How to build your minimum wage workforce into a high-performance, customer focused team, E-Book:
  88. (1977). House of Commons
  89. (2007). How corporate social performance is institutionalised within the governance structure’,
  90. (2008). Idealism and the applied relevance of research on employee participation’,
  91. (1940). individual and the growth of civilizations: An answer to Arnold Toynbee and Henri Bergson III’,
  92. (1902). Industrial Democracy (New edition in 2 volumes bound in one), London: Longmans,
  93. (1998). Industrial Democracy: Reconciling theories of the firm and state’,
  94. (1968). Industrial Democracy: The Sociology of Participation,
  95. (1999). Industrial Democracy’ In: The New Fontana
  96. (1973). Industrial Relations: A Social Critique of Pluralist Ideology’ In:
  97. (2000). Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice (4th),
  98. (2006). Industrial Relations’, In:
  99. (1966). Industrial Sociology and Industrial Relations: Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Research Papers 3, London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
  100. (2007). Information but not Consultation: Exploring Employee Involvement in SME’s’,
  101. (2005). Informing and Consulting Employees: A Brief Guide to the new Legislation, [Internet] London: HMS0. Available from www.dti.gov.uk/employment/employment-legislation. [accessed 12
  102. (2005). Inside the workplace: First findings from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey, [Internet], London: Department for Trade and Industry, Available from www.ectdi.co.uk/cgibin/perlcon.pl. [accessed 20
  103. (2006). Inside-out: analysis of the insider-outsider concept as a heuristic device to develop reflexivity in students doing qualitative research’,
  104. (2001). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction (2nd),
  105. (2006). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analyzing Talk, Text and Interaction (3rd),
  106. (1980). Interview with Michel Foucault’,
  107. (1995). Introduction to Special Issue: Democracy at Work’,
  108. (2000). Jobs and Fairness: The Logic and Experience of Employee Ownership,
  109. (1999). John Lewis chief warns off carpetbaggers’,
  110. (1999). John Lewis hires defender’,
  111. (2000). John Lewis profits slump as shoppers demand price cuts’,
  112. (2001). John Lewis reinvented as ‘retail theatre’, The Independent,
  113. (1999). John Lewis vote squashes talk of end of mutual ownership’,
  114. (1985). John Spedan Lewis (1885-1963)’,
  115. (1985). John Spedan Lewis 1885-1963: Remembered by some of his contemporaries in the centenary year of his birth,
  116. (1921). Jubilee History of Anfield Plain Industrial Co-operative Society Ltd 1870-1921, Manchester: Co-operative Wholesale Society.
  117. (1974). Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation
  118. (2009). Labour’s plan for ‘John Lewis’ public services’,
  119. (2003). Leading the democratic enterprise’,
  120. (1977). Learning to Labour: How working class kids get working class jobs,
  121. (2001). Lost narratives? From paternalism to team-working in a Lock manufacturing firm’,
  122. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy,
  123. (1973). Man and Organisation: The Search for Explanation and Social Relevance, London: George Allen and Unwin.
  124. (2004). Management and Organization: A Critical Text, Hampshire:
  125. (2003). Management Case Study: Biography of The Co-operative Bank, Manchester: The Co-operative Bank plc.
  126. (2001). Management Gurus and Management Fashions,
  127. (1999). Management: A critical text,
  128. (2004). Managerial Responsiveness to Union and Non-union worker Voice in
  129. (1979). Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism,
  130. (2000). Marx: A very short introduction,
  131. (2003). Michel Foucault, Routledge Critical Readers,
  132. (2009). Mondragon: Notes on history, scope and structure’,
  133. (2009). MPs battle for John Lewis ex-partners’ pay’,
  134. (1999). myth of empowerment: Work organisation, hierarchy and employee autonomy in contemporary Australian workplaces’,
  135. (1976). Necessary elements for worker participation in decision-making’,
  136. (1994). New management practices in a multinational corporation: the restructuring of worker representation and rights?’,
  137. (2008). News (2006) ‘Job cuts as landmark store closes’, London: British Broadcasting Corporation, available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/berkshire/4626334.stm [accessed 26
  138. (2009). NHS Mutual: Engaging staff and aligning incentives to achieve higher levels of performance. London: The Nuffield Trust.
  139. (2007). Non-union employee representation in Australia: A Case study of the Suncorp Metway Employee Council Inc.
  140. (1999). Not knowingly undersold’,
  141. (1979). Omnes et singulatim”: Toward a critique of political reason’,
  142. (1998). On Paternalism: Seven observations on the uses and abuses of the concept in industrial relations, past and present’,
  143. (1992). On the idea of emancipation in management and organization studies’,
  144. (1990). Open Coding”,
  145. (2000). Organizational Culture and Identity,
  146. (1976). Organizational Democracy, Participation and Self-Management,
  147. (1984). Organizational Democracy: The History of an idea’,
  148. (1990). Overcoming Organizational Defences: Facilitating Organizational Learning,
  149. (1999). Owning Your Own Job: Employee Ownership in Action, London: Partnership Research Ltd.
  150. (1993). Paradigm Wars: A Response to Hugh Willmott’,
  151. (2005). Participation and Democracy at Work: Essays in Honour of Harvie Ramsay,
  152. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory, London:
  153. (1981). Participation Prospects: Some Scottish Evidence’, Employment Gazette,
  154. (1979). Participation, Democracy and Control: Forms of employee involvement,
  155. (1997). Participation, democracy and efficiency in the US workplace’,
  156. (2001). Participation: The New Tyranny? London:
  157. (1977). Participation: The Shop Floor View’,
  158. (1991). Participatory Action Research,
  159. (2001). Participatory processes / Paradoxical practices: Communication and dilemmas of organisational democracy’,
  160. (2004). Partnership and the development of trust in British workplaces’,
  161. (2004). Partnership and voice, with or without Trade Unions: changing UK management approaches to organisational participation”,
  162. (1948). Partnership for All: A Thirty Four Year Old Experiment in Industrial Democracy,
  163. (2005). Partnership plc (2005) John Lewis Partnership plc Annual Report and Accounts
  164. (2009). Partnership plc (2009) John Lewis Partnership plc Interim Report and Accounts
  165. (1996). Paternalism and its discontents: A case study’,
  166. (2001). Paternalism, Participation and Partnership: Rethinking the Employment Relationship’,
  167. (1995). Patterns of cooperative management: Beyond the Degeneration thesis’,
  168. (2004). Patterns of labour control and the erosion of labour standards: towards an international study of the quality of working life
  169. (1998). Pearls, Pith and Provocation: Ten tips for reflexive bracketing’,
  170. (1995). People, capability and competitive success’,
  171. (1989). People’s Capitalism? A Critical Analysis of Profit-Sharing and Employee Share Ownership,
  172. (1980). Phantom Participation: Patterns of Power and Conflict’,
  173. (1915). Political parties: A sociological study of the Oligarchical tendencies of modern democracy: translated from the Italian by Eden and Cedar Paul, London: Jarrold and Sons.
  174. (2005). Power: A Radical View (2nd), Hampshire:
  175. (1971). Profit sharing and Labour relations
  176. (1992). Profit sharing in the British Retail Trade Sector: The Relative Performance of the John Lewis Partnership’,
  177. (1974). Profit Sharing, Socialism and Labour Unrest’
  178. (1986). Profit-sharing and Employee Share Ownership: An initial assessment,
  179. (2009). Profit-sharing giant is accused of betraying former ‘partners’ over payoff pledge’,
  180. (2000). Putting Partnership into practice in Britain’,
  181. (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists, Cambridge:
  182. (2007). Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo,
  183. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (2nd),
  184. (1980). Questions of Method’,
  185. (1999). Reclaiming Work: Beyond the Wage-Based Society (Translated by Chris Taylor),
  186. (2007). Reconceptualising voice in the non-union workplace’,
  187. (1993). Recycled waste? Debating the analysis of worker participation: a response to Ackers et al.’,
  188. (1991). Reinventing the Wheel? A Review of the Development and Performance of Employee Involvement’,
  189. (2006). Releasing profits to Partners at John Lewis Partnership’,
  190. (1820). Report to the County of Lanark’,
  191. (1995). Representation in Ethnography,
  192. (1965). Reprinted In:
  193. (1999). Research Note: The Mondragon Cooperatives in 1976 and
  194. (1998). Researching Society and Culture,
  195. (1982). Reshaping Work: Prospects and Problems of Workplace Democracy’, In: Rothschild-Whitt,
  196. (1990). Reshaping Work: The Cadbury experience, Cambridge:
  197. (2000). Responsibility and workplace democracy’,
  198. (2009). Retailer Awards 2009’, Online. Available at: http://www.which.co.uk/about-which/what-we-do/which-awards/index.jsp [accessed 26
  199. (2007). Rethinking Organisational Behaviour: A Poststructuralist Framework 2nd,
  200. (2009). Riding along on the crest of a wave’: tracking the shifting rationale for non-union consultation at FinanceCo’,
  201. (2002). Risking the store of happiness’,
  202. (1958). Roles in Sociological Field Observations’,
  203. (2005). Sceptic; In the land of the blind; A very sad retired Partner; A once staunch supporter; Hidden agenda; Brick in the wall; Eco warrior; Non-believer; Bushed out (The Gazette,
  204. (1986). Scott Bader Common Ownership Lecture: Industrial Partnership: Utopia or Necessity?’
  205. (1984). Scott Bader Common Ownership Lecture: The practice and experience of the Mondragon Basque Co-operatives’,
  206. (1969). Scott Bader Company and Commonwealth: A new evolutionary alternative, unpublished MBA Dissertation,
  207. (1978). Scott Bader: Preamble to the Constitution, Northamptonshire:
  208. (2007). Scratching the shiny surface of New Workplaces:
  209. (1813). Second Essay: The principles of the former essay continued and applied, in part, to practice’,
  210. (1975). Self-Management: Economic Liberation of Man,
  211. (2006). Social enterprise mythology: Critiquing some assumptions’,
  212. (2004). Social Research Methods: A Reader,
  213. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis,
  214. (2008). Staff reap bonus as strong John Lewis pushed the envelope.
  215. (1955). Street Corner Society: The social structure of an Italian slum (2nd),
  216. (2009). Sustaining employee-owned companies: Seven recommendations’,
  217. (2004). Swimming against the tide: social partnership, mutual gains and the revival of ‘tired’ HRM’,
  218. (1995). Taking the risk out of democracy: Corporate propaganda versus freedom and liberty, Edited by Andrew Lohrey, Foreword by Noam Chomsky,
  219. (1988). Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography,
  220. (2005). Teams, Control, Cooperation and Resistance, unpublished PhD thesis,
  221. (2004). The “inside” and the “outside”’, In: Silverman,
  222. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge.(Translated from the French by A.M.
  223. (1989). The British Experience of Profit Sharing’, Economic History Review,
  224. (2009). The British Partnership phenomenon: A ten year review’,
  225. (1998). The Calculated and the Avowed: Techniques of Discipline and Struggles over Identity in Big Six Accounting Firms’,
  226. (1957). The Concept of Power’,
  227. (1977). The confession of the flesh’,
  228. (1956). The Constitution of the John Lewis Partnership
  229. (2008). The Constitution of the John Lewis Partnership: Introduction, Principles and Rules,
  230. (1986). The Cooperative Workplace: Potentials and dilemmas of organizational democracy and participation, Cambridge:
  231. (1987). The Creation of a Company Culture: Cadburys, 1861-1931’,
  232. (2004). The Democratic Enterprise: Liberating Your Business with Freedom, Flexibility and Commitment,
  233. (1990). The Democratic Worker-Owned Firm: A new model for the East and West,
  234. (2007). The Dictionary of Alternatives,
  235. (1998). The Employment Relationship
  236. (2002). The End of Management and the rise of Organizational Democracy,
  237. (1996). The ethical route to service quality at the John Lewis Partnership’,
  238. (1988). The four faces of employee consultation’,
  239. (2009). The genre of corporate history’,
  240. (1974). The German Ideology: Part One (Edited and with an introduction by CJ Arthur), London: Lawrence and Wishart.
  241. (2004). The Governance of Cooperatives and Mutual associations: A Paradox perspective’,
  242. (1967). The Human Organization,
  243. (1975). The Interpretation of Culture,
  244. (1993). The Invention of Corporate Culture: A history of the histories of Cadbury’,
  245. (1953). The John Lewis Partnership: A Brief Description,
  246. (1977). The John Lewis Partnership: A study in co-ownership’,
  247. (1964). The John Lewis Partnership’, Business,
  248. (1976). The Levellers and the English democratic tradition: text of a speech delivered in
  249. (1969). The Liberation of Work: The elimination of strikes and strife in industry through associative organization of enterprise, Introduction by
  250. (1978). The man who gave his company away to the workforce’,
  251. (1978). The man who gave his company away: A biography of Ernest Bader, Founder of the Scott Bader Commonwealth, Northants:
  252. (2005). The management of voice in non-union organisations:
  253. (2002). The meaning of empowerment: the interdisciplinary etymology of a new management concept’,
  254. (2004). The meanings and purpose of employee voice’,
  255. (2000). The Merchant Princes: Family, fortune and philanthropy: Cadburys, Sainsbury and
  256. (2004). The Mondragon Corporacion Cooperativa: An interview with
  257. (2005). The MT Interview: Sir Stuart Hampson’, Management Today.
  258. (1998). The Natural Environment, Organization and Ethics’,
  259. (1987). The onward and upward progress of Woolworth and the John Lewis Partnership’s continued success’,
  260. (1995). The Partners’, Editor Steven Lambert *Videocassette+. 1 programme (55 minutes), London: British Broadcasting Corporation, director: Daniel Reid.
  261. (1998). The Perception and Effects of Share Ownership: Empirical Evidence from Employee Buy-Outs’,
  262. (1985). The Politics of Production,
  263. (1978). The Resin philanthropist: Review of the man who gave his company away by Susanna Hoe’,
  264. (1999). The rise and fall of employee-owned UK bus companies’,
  265. (1986). The Scott Bader Commonwealth: Putting people first’,
  266. (1982). The Search for Excellence: The story of Scott Bader’s activities, Northamptonshire:
  267. (2005). The Stakeholder Model: The Influence of the Ownership and Governance Structures’,
  268. (1982). The Subject and Power’,
  269. (1986). The Success Study of the John Lewis Partnership:
  270. (1947). The Theory of Social and Economic Organization (Translated by A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons),
  271. (1992). The use of cycles? Explaining employee involvement in the 1990s’,
  272. (1995). The Work of Justice: The search for a moral common ground in the authority relations of work: The cases of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company and the Scott Bader Commonwealth, unpublished
  273. (2004). Theoretical Sampling’. In: Seale,
  274. (1994). Theory building in qualitative research and computer programs for the management of textual data’,
  275. (1813). Third Essay: The principles of the former essay applied to a particular situation’,
  276. (1987). Titus Salt: Victorian Values’,
  277. (1997). Towards Jobs and Justice: Can labourmanagement co-operation deliver jobs and justice?’,
  278. (2003). Trade Unions and Industrial Relations’ In: Ackers,
  279. (1973). Truth and Juridical Forms’,
  280. (1976). Truth and Power’,
  281. (1994). Understanding the Meaning of Participation: Views from the Workplace’,
  282. (2003). Understanding Work and Employment: Industrial Relations in transition, Oxford:
  283. (2003). Understanding work and employment: Industrial relations in transition. Oxford:
  284. (1998). Unions, Partnership and HRM: Sleeping with the Enemy?’,
  285. (2007). Untitled’, The Telegraph,
  286. (1999). Values at Work: Employee Participation Meets Market Pressure at Mondragon (Updated Edition),
  287. (1993). Waving or drowning in participation?’,
  288. (1984). What do Unions do?
  289. (1993). What do we know about Social Democracy?’,
  290. (1985). What is Participation For? A critical evaluation of ‘labour process’ analyses of job reform’ In: Knights,
  291. (2006). Whence democracy? A review and critique of the conceptual dimensions and implications of the business case for organizational democracy’,
  292. (1983). Why America needs, but cannot have, corporate democracy’, Organizational Dynamics,
  293. (1968). Work and Community: The Scott Bader Commonwealth and the Quest for a New Social Order, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  294. (1984). Worker Capitalists? Profit-Sharing, Capital-sharing and juridical forms of socialism’,
  295. (1999). Worker ownership American style: pluralism, participation and performance’,
  296. (2006). Worker participation – some under-considered issues’,
  297. (2000). Worker participation and firm performance: Evidence from Germany and Britain’,
  298. (2002). Worker participation and teams: New evidence from analyzing organisational ethnographies’,
  299. (1975). Workers’ Participation: Who participates?’,
  300. (1995). Workplace Europe: new forms of bargaining and participation’,
  301. (2009). Writing up Qualitative Research (3rd),
  302. (2001). Your Research Project: A Step by Step Guide for the First-Time Researcher,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.