Location of Repository

Creating collective identities through astronomy? A study of Greek temples in Sicily

By Alun Mark Salt

Abstract

This is a study of the alignments of Greek temples in Sicily and the implications for the study of identity and ethnicity in the Greek world of the first millennium BC. The thesis presents data from 41 temples and applies a new method of statistical analysis and presentation in order to draw conclusions as to whether or not there are any meaningful patterns of alignment related to astronomical practices. I test several hypotheses, first by determining if there is a correlation between temple alignment and sunrise, and then analysing sub-samples by location, genealogy, period of construction, type (celestial or chthonic) and gender of deity the temple is dedicated to, as well as four specific deities. Additionally I examine them in their historical and cultural contexts for evidence of hybridisation with the native inhabitants of Sicily. I find that the temples in Sicily exhibit a closer correlation with solar alignments than temples in Greece do, but that the alignments of individual temples are selected for reasons associated with local historical and topographical contexts. The study as a whole is conducted within a post-positive framework, which intentionally tackles one of the problems of interdisciplinary studies, that they can lack a coherent means\ud of integrating data

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7783

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1979). A Drought
  2. (2006). A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge:
  3. (1968). A history of Sicily : Ancient Sicily to the Arab Conquest. London: Chatto
  4. (2005). A History of Western Architecture.
  5. (2002). A Paradigm Shift in Classical Archaeology?
  6. (1981). A Portrait of Hecate.
  7. A preliminary statement of an investigation of the dates of some of the Greek temples as derived from their orientation.
  8. (2007). A World History
  9. (1929). Acropoli di Selinunte (Scavi e topografia).
  10. (1978). Agreeing to Disagree: The Measurement of Duration in a Southwestern Ethiopian Community.
  11. (2003). Agrigento II. I Santuari Extraurbani l'Asklepion. Soveria Mannelli:
  12. (1995). Ancient Greek agriculture: an introduction.
  13. (2005). Ancient Greek Religion.
  14. (2004). Ancient Medicine.
  15. (1998). Ancient Past, imperial present: the British Empire in T.J. Dunbabin's The western Greeks. Antiquity ,
  16. (1978). Applications of early astronomical records.
  17. (2001). Archaeoastronomical orientation errors:The case of the two Hellenic pyramidals.
  18. (2003). Archaeoastronomical Orientation of Seven Significant Ancient Hellenic Temples. Archaeoastronomy: the journal of Astronomy
  19. (2006). Archaeoastronomy at the Gates of Orthodoxy: Introduction to the Oxford Conference on Archaeoastronomy Papers. In
  20. (1982). Archaeoastronomy in the New World:American Primitive Astronomy. Cambridge:
  21. (1982). Archaeoastronomy in the Old World. Cambridge:
  22. (1971). Archaeological News from South Italy and Sicily.
  23. (1939). Archaeology and Astronomy.
  24. (2004). Archaeology and Colonialism: Cultural Contact from 5000 BC to the Present. Cambridge:
  25. (1999). Archaeology, Myth-History and the Tyranny of the Text: Chalkidike, Torone, and Thucydides.
  26. (1996). Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction.
  27. (1980). Archaic Greece: The age of experiment.
  28. (1986). Asklepios and Hygieia and the Cult Statue at Tegea.
  29. (1964). Athenian Calendar Problems.
  30. (2001). Athenian Calendars and Ekklesias (Archaia Hellas 8).
  31. (1932). Attische Feste.
  32. (1902). Beginning of the Greek Day.
  33. (2008). Between brains, bodies and things: tectonoetic awareness and the extended self.
  34. (1981). Bilancio degli scavi di Naxos per l'VIII e il VII sec a.C.
  35. (1998). Bognor Regis: Ocarina Books.
  36. (2007). Caesar's Calendar: Ancient Time and the Beginnings of History.
  37. (1966). Camarina (Ragusa). Scavi nell'area urbana.
  38. (1995). Camarina: Museo archeologico.
  39. (1929). Cefalù (Palermo) Il cosidetto «Tempio di Diana».
  40. (2004). Ceramics and Identity.
  41. (1961). Chippewa Social Atomism.
  42. (2005). Collective memory, group minds, and the extended mind thesis.
  43. (1997). Colonial constructs: colonialism and archaeology in the Mediterranean.
  44. (1976). Colonies - an attempt at a typology.
  45. (1964). Colony and Mother City in Ancient Greece. Manchester:
  46. (1996). Comment on Defining Interdisciplinarity.
  47. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix.
  48. (2000). Cosmology, calendars and society in Neolithic Orkney: a rejoinder to Euan MacKie.
  49. (2006). Critique of Keynote Address: Evidence and Intentionality: On Method in Archaeoastronomy. In
  50. (1995). Cults, Territory, and the Origins of the Greek City-state.
  51. (1995). Culture Contact Studies: Redefining the Relationship between Prehistoric and Historical Archaeology.
  52. (2002). Darwin's Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society.
  53. (2005). Dead Men Tell No Tales: Ethnic Diversity in Sicilian Colonies and the Evidence of Cemeteries.
  54. (1988). Der Kult von Demeter und Kore auf Sizilien und in der Magna Graecia.
  55. (1984). Der Tempel von Segesta und die dorische Tempelbaukunst des griechischen Westens in klassischer Zeit.
  56. (1996). Dossier documentaire et perspectives historiques.
  57. (1992). Early Colonisation.
  58. (2003). Early Greek States beyond the Polis.
  59. (1979). Early Orientalizing: Aspects of the Euboean Connection. In
  60. (1999). Editorial: A Professor of Our Own.
  61. (1966). Eloro (Noto - Siracusa): Saggi di scavo nell'area urbana.
  62. (1966). Eloro: I. Campagna di scavo del 1899.
  63. (1966). Eloro: II. Campagna di scavo del 1927 e rivenimenti sporadici.
  64. (1966). Eloro: III. Relazione degli scavi del 1958-59.
  65. (2007). Equality in the colonies: concepts of equality in Sicily during the eighth to six centuries bc.
  66. (1966). Eraclea Minoa risultati archeologici e storici dei primi scavi sistemactici nell'area dell'Abitato.
  67. (2004). Eraclea Minoa: frontiera di civilità.
  68. (1989). Erycina tra Sicilia, Africa e Sardegna.
  69. (1910). Esplorazioni dentro ed intorno al tempio di Atena
  70. (1959). Étude de chronologie et d'historiographie siciliotes; recherches sur le système chronologique des sources de Thucydide concernant la fondation des colonies siciliotes. Brussels: Palais des Académies.
  71. (1996). Europe: a history.
  72. (2005). Excavating Colonization. In
  73. (1930). Excavation in the North Cemetery at Corinth
  74. (2004). Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy.
  75. (1983). Festivals of Attica: An Archaeological Commentary.
  76. (1977). Festivals of the Athenian.
  77. (1980). Field Survey at Heraclea Minoa
  78. (2005). Forms and Processes: Some Thoughts on the Meaning of Urbanization in Early Archaic Greece
  79. (1992). Frauenfeste in Demeterheligtümern: Das Thesomphorion von Bitalemi.
  80. (1985). Fremde Weihungen in griechische Heliigtümern vom 8. bis zum Beginn des 7,
  81. (1968). Gela - Topografia dei santuari e Documenazione Archeologica dei Culti.
  82. (1906). Gela, Scavi del 1900-1905.
  83. (1967). Gela: nuove scoperte nel thesmophorion di Bitalemi.
  84. (1996). Gelas: Storia e archeologia dell'antica Gela. Turin: Società Editrice Internazionale.
  85. (1991). Gello and Lamia. Two Hellenic Daemons of Semitic Origins.
  86. (2006). Geminos's Introduction to the Phenomena: A Translation and Study of a hellenistic Survey of Astronomy.
  87. (2001). Genes, Peoples and Languages
  88. (2003). Getting history from Greek archaeology - 'some way to go'.
  89. (1919). Gli scavi intorno all'Athenaion di Siracusa negli anni 1912-1917.
  90. (2006). Going Against the Grain in Sicilian Greek Economics.
  91. (2000). Great Excavations: John Romer's History of Archaeology.
  92. (1949). Greek Altars: Origins and Typology.
  93. (2005). Greek and Roman Calendars.
  94. (1971). Greek Burial Customs.
  95. (2004). Greek Mysteries.
  96. (1948). Greek Oared Ships. Cambridge:
  97. (1977). Greek Religion.
  98. (2008). Greek Traders in Native Contexts in Iron Age Southeastern Italy: From Interaction to Marginality.
  99. (1989). Greeks and natives in southeast Sicily: approaches to the archaeological evidence. In
  100. (2006). Greeks in Sicily. In
  101. (2004). Growing Up with Lucy: How to Build an Android in Twenty Easy Steps.
  102. (2004). Hail to the Chiefdom? The quest for social archaeology.
  103. (1977). Hera ed Apollo nella colonizzazione euboica d'occidenta. Mélanges de l'École française de Rome
  104. (1958). Heraclea Minoa.
  105. (1955). Heraclea Minoa. Il teatro.
  106. (1976). Herodotus and the dating of the battle of Thermopylae.
  107. (1931). Himera: Lo Scavo del Tempio della Vittoria e del Temenos.
  108. (2000). Homeric Hymn to Demeter. The Stoa: Diotima: http://www.stoa.org/diotima/anthology/demeter.shtml Newton-Smith.
  109. (2004). How 'Greek' Were The Early Western Greeks? In
  110. (2003). Hybridity and the Cultures within Greek Culture. In
  111. (1992). I wasn't going to say anything, but since you asked:
  112. (1997). Iguvines, Umbrians and Romans: ethnic identity in central Italy. In
  113. (1968). II miceneo nel territorio di Agrigento.
  114. (1999). Il Complesso Architettonico del Tempio M di Selinunte: Analisi tecnica e storia del monumento. Florence: Casa Editrice Le Lettere.
  115. (1927). Il Santuario della Malaphoros a Selinunte.
  116. (1991). Il santuario di Athena sul plano di Imera. In
  117. (1986). Il tempio di Afrodite di Akrai.
  118. (1996). Il territorio di Himera in età arcaica.
  119. (2000). Indigenous Society between the Ninth and Sixth Centuries BC: territorial, urban and social evolution.
  120. (1986). Individual and Community.
  121. (1999). Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies.
  122. (2005). Interpreting Rock Art: European and Anasazi Representations of Spirituality.
  123. (1989). Introduction 'Syracuse Richest and Fairest of All Cities'. In
  124. (1979). Introduction à l'étude du culte d'Héraclès en Sicile. In
  125. (1998). Introduction: an archaeology of rock-art through informed methods and formal methods (The Archaeology of Rock Art). Cambridge:
  126. (1993). Introduction: The limits of war.
  127. (2006). Keynote Address: Case Studies of the Three Most Famous Claimed Archaeoastronomical Alignments in North America. In
  128. (2002). King or Private Citizen: Fifth-century Sicilian Tyrants at Olympia and Delphi.
  129. (2005). Knowing when to consult the oracle at Delphi.
  130. (2004). L'abitati proto-arcaico di Naxos di Sicilia
  131. (1951). L'Apollonion-Artemision di Ortigia in Siracusa.
  132. (1970). L'Area Sacra. In
  133. (1968). L'attivita della Sopraintendenza alle Antichità delle Sicilia Orientale fra il 1965 e il
  134. (1985). L'importanza di Hera nelle spedizioni coloniali e nell'insediamento primitivo delle colonie greche alla luce della scroperta di un nuovo santuario perifrico di Selinunte. Archeologia Classica,
  135. (1903). L'Olympieion di Siracusa.
  136. (1964). La Ceramique Polychrome de Megara Hyblaea.
  137. (1967). La divinità ed i templi di Selinunte.
  138. (1962). La fondazione di Agrigento e l'ellenizzazione del territorio fra il Salso e il Platani. Kokalos ,
  139. (1981). La necropoli di Monte Finocchito. Cronache di archeologia e di storia dell'arte
  140. (1963). La più antica ceramica Grecadi Gela e il problema di Lindioi. Cronache di archeologia e di storia dell'arte,
  141. (1994). La Valle dei Templi. Palermo: Sellerio editore.
  142. (1966). Le Divinità ed i templi a Selinunte. Kokalos
  143. (1992). Les statuettes aux parures du sanctuaire de la Malophoros à Sélinonte. Naples: Cahiers du Centre Jean Bérard.
  144. (1960). Lindos: Fouilles de l'Acropole 1902-1914 et
  145. (2005). Little Boxes on the Hillside: Greek Town Planning, Hippodamos and Polis Ideology.
  146. (1966). Lo Scavo del Thesmophorion di Bitalemi e il Culto delle Divinità Ctonie a Gela.
  147. (2006). Local Responses to Colonization in the Iron Age Mediterranean.
  148. (1999). Lots et ilots à Mégara Hyblaea: questions de métrologie.
  149. (1964). Mégara Hyblaea 2. La céramique archaïque. Rome: École Française de Rome.
  150. (2004). Mégara Hyblaea 5: La ville archaïque. École Française de Rome.
  151. (1976). Mégara Hyblaea I. Le quartier de l'agora archaïque. Rome: École Française de Rome.
  152. (1982). Mégara Hyblaea: Bilan des fouilles récentes sur le plateau sud (1977-1982). Mélanges de l'École française de Rome
  153. (2004). Megara Hyblaia and Selinous: Two Greek City-states in Archaic Sicily
  154. (2004). Megaris, Corinthia
  155. (1988). Melqart: Cultes et Mythes de L’Héraclès Tyrien en Méditerranée.
  156. (2003). Metals, Salt, and Slaves: Economic Links Between Gaul and Italy From the Eighth to the Late Sixth Centuries BC.
  157. (2001). Miletos, the Ornament of Ionia. Ann Arbor:
  158. (1993). Mixed marriages at the frontiers of the Greek world.
  159. (1974). Motya, a Phoenician and Carthaginian City in Sicily (1).
  160. (1921). Motya: A Phoenician colony in Sicily.
  161. (2002). Mozia: gli scavi nella 'Zona A'. Bari: Casa Editrice Edipuglia.
  162. (1972). Naxos II -
  163. (1978). Naxos nell'VIII e nel VII secolo a.C. Cronache di archeologia e di storia dell'arte, Università di Catania
  164. (2003). Networks and the Emergence of Greek Identity.
  165. (2000). New Arguments for the Minoan Origin of the Stellar Positions in Aratos' Phaenomena. In
  166. (1925). Olympia: Its History and Remains.
  167. (2007). On Deep History and the Brain (First ed.).
  168. (1881). On the Authenticity of the Olympian Register.
  169. (1989). On the naked-eye visibility of a partial eclipse.
  170. On the Orientation of Greek Temples and the Dates of Their Foundation Derived from Astronomical Considerations, Being a Supplement to a Paper Published in the 'Transactions of the Royal Society,'
  171. On the Orientation of Greek Temples, Being the Results of Some Observations Taken
  172. (2008). On the Orientation of Roman Towns in Italy.
  173. (2006). On the Time-Space Context of Moon-Related Beliefs. Folklore (Estonia)
  174. (1999). Orientations of 935 of Southern France. Archaeoastronomy: Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy
  175. (1971). Orthogonal Town Planning in Antiquity.
  176. (2005). Pattern withour a plan: Rethinking the Bronze Age coaxial field systems on Dartmoor, south-west England.
  177. (1973). Pendent Semicircles at Veii: A Glimpse.
  178. (1998). Personality in Greek Epic, Tragedy and Philosophy.
  179. (1997). Phaenomena: Aratus of Soli.
  180. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought.
  181. (2006). Polis: An Introduction to the Ancient Greek City-State.
  182. (1969). Population and History.
  183. (2004). Postcolonial Concepts and Ancient Greek Colonization.
  184. (1996). Pots, trade and the archaic Greek economy.
  185. (1962). Problèmes historiques autour de la bataille des Thermopyles.
  186. (1983). Quasi-Experimentation: Its Ontology, Epistimology, and Methodology.
  187. (2007). Random Orientation of Roman Camps.
  188. (1997). Rationality and the Greek City: the evidence from Kamarina. In
  189. (1999). Reassessment of Sites in Northwest Scotland: A New Statistical Approach. Archaeoastronomy: Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy
  190. (2006). Rebuttal to Critique: No Astronomical Alignments at the Caracol. In
  191. (2002). Religion Explained: The Human Instincts That Fashion Gods, Spirits and Ancestors.
  192. (1984). Religion, Women and Greek Colonisation.
  193. (2006). Religious space and construction of Ancient Greek civic communities.
  194. (1992). Reparative Praxis: Rethinking the Catastrophe That Is Social Science. Theory into Practice
  195. (2006). Reply to Rebuttal: Schaefer's Rigid Enthnocentric Criteria. In
  196. (2005). Revisiting the 'unreasonable effectiveness' of mathematics.
  197. (2008). Rocks, views, soils and plants at the temples of ancient Greece.
  198. (1994). Sacred Geography of the Ancient Greeks
  199. (2002). Sanctuaries, Sacrifices amd the Eleusinian Mysterie.
  200. (1969). Scavi e richerche archeologiche nella provincia di Ragusa 1961-1966. Archivo Storico Siracusano,
  201. (1984). Selinunte fra il 650 ed il 409 : un modello urbanistco coloniale.
  202. (1994). Selinunte Le Metope dell'Heraion. Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini.
  203. (1999). Sicily Before History: An Archaeological Survey from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age.
  204. (1901). Some Additional Notes on the Orientation of Greek Temples; Being the Result of a Journey to Greece and Sicily in April and
  205. (1972). Some Aspects of Urbanization
  206. (1899). Spezieller kanon der sonnen- und mondfinsternisse für das ländergebiet der klassischen altertumswissenschaften und den zeitraum von 900 vor Chr. bis 600 nach Chr. Berlin: Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu
  207. (1963). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning.
  208. (1988). Star Tales.
  209. (1993). Statistical Analysis of Circular Data.
  210. (2008). Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action and Cognitive Extension.
  211. (1936). Sur l'identification des temples de Sélinonte.
  212. (1989). Syracuse, the fairest Greek city : ancient art from the Museo Archeologico Regionale "Paolo Orsi".
  213. (2006). Temple Decoration and Cultural Identity in the Archaic Greek World: The Metopes of Selinus. Cambridge:
  214. (2000). Temple Orientations in Magna Graecia and Sicily. Archaeoastronomy: Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy
  215. (1981). Thales' Eclipse.
  216. (2000). The Archaeology of Ancient Sicily.
  217. (1988). The Archaeology of the Olympics.
  218. (1992). The Archaic Temenos in Western Greece. A Survey and Two Inquiries.
  219. (1961). The Athenian Year.
  220. (1981). The Attic Festivals of Demeter and their Relation to the Agricultural Year.
  221. (1991). The City in the Greek and Roman World.
  222. (2006). The Complete Greek Temples. London: Thames and Hudson.
  223. (1994). The Constellations on Achilles'
  224. (1999). The Council's Solar Calendar.
  225. (2000). The Dark Age of Greece: An Archeological Survey of the Eleventh to the Eighth Centuries B.C. Edinburgh:
  226. (1976). The Earliest Greek Settlements on the Black Sea.
  227. (1979). The Earth. The Temple and the Gods (Revised ed.).
  228. (2003). The erratic ways of studying astronomy in culture.
  229. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis ,
  230. (1992). The First Western greeks.
  231. (1994). The Foundation of Selinous: overpopulation or opportunities? In
  232. (1982). The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe, 6500-3500 BC: Myths and Cult Images.
  233. (1999). The Great Goddess: Reverence of the Divine Feminine from the Palaeolithic to the Present.
  234. (1943). The Greek Calendar.
  235. (1957). The Greeks and their eastern neighbours ; studies in the relations between Greece and the countries of the Near East in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C. London: Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.
  236. (2004). The Greeks in Sicily. Verona: Arsenale editrice.
  237. (1999). The Greeks Overseas:
  238. (2005). The Haphazard Astronomy of the Mursi. In
  239. (1988). The Idea of a Town: Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and the Ancient World.
  240. (2000). The inconstant Moon: lunar astronomies in different cultures.
  241. (1998). The Mind: Embodied, Embedded, but not Extended (Being there: Putting philosopher, researcher and student together again).
  242. (2000). The Monumental Past: The Life-histories of Megalithic Monuments in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany):
  243. (2003). The moon : myth and image.
  244. (1995). The Most Silent Women of Greece and Rome: Rural Labour and Women's Life in the Ancient World (I). Greece and
  245. (1996). The Most Silent Women of Greece and Rome: Rural Labour and Women's Life in the Ancient World (II). Greece and
  246. (1991). The Myth of the Goddess: Evolution of an Image.
  247. (2006). The Nature of Archaeoastronomy. In
  248. (2000). The Old Women of Ancient Greece and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter.
  249. (1984). The Orientation of Greek Temples.
  250. (2005). The Orientation of Roman Camps and Forts.
  251. (2007). The Orientations of Greek Temples: A Statistical Analysis.
  252. (1997). The Polis as an Urban Centre: The Literary and Epigraphical Evidence.
  253. (1995). The Pride of Most Colonials: Burial and Religion in the Sicilian Colonies. In
  254. (2005). The Relations of Power in the Pre-State and Early State Polities. In
  255. (1993). The Rise of the Polis: The Archaeological Evidence. The Ancient Greek city-state: symposium on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters,
  256. (1975). The Sacred and Civil Calendar of the Athenian Year.
  257. (1970). The Sicilian Colony Dates: Studies in Chronography I.
  258. (1993). The Study of Cultural Astronomy.
  259. (1967). The Temple at Megara Hyblaea (review).
  260. (1964). The Trojan War.
  261. (1960). The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences.
  262. (2004). The Various Aegean Affinities of the Early Pottery from Sicilian Naxos.
  263. (1948). The Western Greeks: History of Sicily and South Italy from the Foundations of Greek Colonies to 480BC. Oxford:
  264. (1992). Theory and Practice in Archaeology.
  265. (2002). Theory and practice of site planning in classical sanctuaries. Kyushu:
  266. (2004). There's Something About Mary.
  267. (1996). Theseus and Athenian Festivals.
  268. (2001). Time and space in social systems - further issues in theoretical archaeoastronomy.
  269. (1974). Timoleon and the Revival of Greek Sicily 344-317 BC.
  270. (2001). Tombs, Temples and Their Orientations: A New Perspective on Mediterranean Prehistory. Bognor Regis:
  271. (2004). Tradition and Innovation in Hellenistic Poetry. Cambridge:
  272. Ubicazione di questa antica città sulla sinestra del Tellaro nel commune di Noto.
  273. (1959). Un Témoignage capital de Polyen sur la bataille de Thermopyles.
  274. (1983). Una nuova capanna sicula in Ortigia, Tipologia dei materiali. Mélanges de l'École française de Rome
  275. (1978). Una nuova iscrizione anellenica da Montagna di Marzo.
  276. (1997). Untersuchungen zu den altgriechischen Monatsnamen und Monatsfolgen. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag
  277. (1981). Urban and Rural Land Division in Ancient Greece.
  278. (2005). Urban Foundations? Colonial Settlement and Urbanization in the Western Mediterranean. In
  279. (1997). Urbanization in Late and Sub-Geometric Greece: Abstract Considerations and Concrete Case Studies of Eretria and Zagora C.
  280. (2006). Were Greek temples orientated to aurorae?
  281. (2008). What does a study of Sikeliote Cosmology reveal? Young, Ioannidis and Al-Ubaydli
  282. (1986). What Mary Didn't Know.
  283. (1997). Whose Equinox? Archaeoastronomy, Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy
  284. (2000). Wine Wares in Protohistoric Eastern Sicily.
  285. (2004). Worshipping Aphrodite.
  286. (1963). Xerxes Invasion of Greece.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.