Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Purinergic signalling in dictyostelium discoideum

By Melanie Joanna Ludlow


The identification of five predicted proteins (dP2XA-E) with homology to vertebrate P2X receptors in Dictyostelium discoideum proved a unique opportunity to explore purinergic receptor function in a simple unicellular eukaryote from outside the animal kingdom. dP2XE was shown to be expressed as a trimer and trafficked to the cell surface in Xenopus oocytes. However, no currents were detected to extracellularly applied ligands. This lack of function was potentially due to inaccurate post-translational modifications since dP2XE expressed in oocytes and D. discoideum displayed different molecular weights. Unexpectedly for a potential ligand-gated ion channel, dP2XE-eGFP displayed a solely intracellular distribution in D. discoideum, localising to the endolysosomal and contractile vacuole systems. Ablation of the p2xE gene by homologous recombination revealed a role for dP2XE in axenic growth in suspension, associated with a modest defect in cytokinesis, and a potential involvement in the calcium signalling and homeostasis functions of the contractile vacuole. Both this distribution and disruption phenotype were mirrored for p2xA. The existence of purinergic signalling in D. discoideum was demonstrated by utilising an apoaequorin expressing strain to show that extracellular ATP and ADP evoked increases in intracellular Caˆ{2,+}. Indicative of P2X receptor activation, responses were rapid and transient, required extracellular Caˆ{2,+}, inhibited by Gdˆ{3,+}, modified by extracellular pH and remained unaffected by deletion of either the single heterotrimeric G\beta or iplA genes. ATP/ADP responses were unaffected by ablation of either the p2xA or p2xE genes leaving dP2XB-D as potential candidates. Inhibition of the large P2X-like response with Znˆ{2,+} revealed the presence of a much smaller response with a slower time course indicating that P2Y-like receptors may also be present. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates that D. discoideum possesses cell surface purinergic receptors for extracellular ATP/ADP and extends our knowledge of the intracellular role of purinergic signalling in this organism

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1991). A Ca2+ transport system associated with the plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum is activated by different chemoattractant receptors."
  2. (2004). A cAMP receptor-like G protein-coupled receptor with roles in growth regulation and development."
  3. (1977). A defined minimal medium for axenic strains of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  4. (1998). A domain contributing to the ion channel of ATPgated P2X2 receptors identified by the substituted cysteine accessibility method."
  5. (2007). A fast Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release mechanism in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  6. (1996). A guanine nucleotide-independent inwardly rectifying cation permeability is associated with P2Y1 receptor expression in Xenopus oocytes."
  7. (2002). A highly conserved tryptophane residue indispensable for cloned rat neuronal P2X receptor activation."
  8. (1994). A new class of ligand-gated ion channel defined by P2x receptor for extracellular ATP."
  9. (1999). A new ER trafficking signal regulates the subunit stoichiometry of plasma membrane K(ATP) channels."
  10. (1996). A novel G protein-coupled P2 purinoceptor (P2Y3) activated preferentially by nucleoside diphosphates."
  11. (2007). A novel nucleotide receptor in Xenopus activates the cAMP second messenger pathway."
  12. (1995). A P2X purinoceptor cDNA conferring a novel pharmacological profile."
  13. (1995). A P2X purinoceptor expressed by a subset of sensory neurons."
  14. (2000). A primitive ATP receptor from the little skate Raja erinacea."
  15. (2000). A protein kinase C site highly conserved in P2X subunits controls the desensitization kinetics of P2X(2) ATP-gated channels."
  16. (2000). A putative alternatively spliced variant of the P2X(1) purinoreceptor in human bladder."
  17. (2004). A rapid and efficient method to generate multiple gene disruptions in Dictyostelium discoideum using a single selectable marker and the Cre-loxP system."
  18. (2007). A reliable general purpose method for extracting genomic DNA from Dictyostelium cells."
  19. (2002). A retrospective of recombinant P2Y receptor subtypes and their pharmacology."
  20. (1996). A role for a Rab4-like GTPase in endocytosis and in regulation of contractile vacuole structure and function in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  21. (2005). A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium."
  22. (2000). A trafficking checkpoint controls GABA(B) receptor heterodimerization."
  23. (1993). A transformation vector for dictyostelium discoideum with a new selectable marker bsr."
  24. (2002). A user's guide to restriction enzyme-mediated integration in Dictyostelium."
  25. (1997). A voltage- and K+-dependent K+ channel from a membrane fraction enriched in contractile vacuole of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  26. (2007). Acidic amino acids impart enhanced Ca2+ permeability and flux in two members of the ATP-gated P2X receptor family."
  27. (2006). Acidic clusters target transmembrane proteins to the contractile vacuole in Dictyostelium cells."
  28. (2002). Acidocalcisomes are functionally linked to the contractile vacuole of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  29. (1991). Acidosomes from Dictyostelium. Initial biochemical characterization."
  30. (2006). Adenosine 5'-triphosphate and adenosine as endogenous signaling molecules in immunity and inflammation."
  31. (1968). Adenosine triphosphate acceleration of hte nephridial apparatus of Paramecium multimicronucleatum."
  32. (1991). Adenosine triphosphate induces a low [Ca2+]i sensitivity of phosphorylation and an unusual form of receptor desensitization in smooth muscle."
  33. (2000). ADP is not an agonist at P2X(1) receptors: evidence for separate receptors stimulated by ATP and ADP on human platelets."
  34. (2002). Aequorin-based functional assays for G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and tyrosine kinase receptors." Receptors Channels 8(5-6):
  35. (2001). Agonist-stimulated internalisation of the ligand-gated ion channel P2X(1) in rat vas deferens."
  36. (2001). Altered cytokine production in mice lacking P2X(7) receptors."
  37. (2007). Alternative splicing of P2X6 receptors in developing mouse brain and during in vitro neuronal differentiation."
  38. (2001). Amino acid residues involved in gating identified in the first membrane-spanning domain of the rat P2X(2) receptor."
  39. (1987). An analysis of 5'-noncoding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs."
  40. (2002). An ATP-gated ion channel at the cell nucleus."
  41. (2007). An intracellular P2X receptor required for osmoregulation in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  42. (2006). An uncharged region within the N terminus of the P2X6 receptor inhibits its assembly and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum."
  43. (2007). Apyrases (nucleoside triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases) play a key role in growth control in Arabidopsis."
  44. (1992). Association of calmodulin and an unconventional myosin with the contractile vacuole complex of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  45. (2005). Atomic force microscopy imaging demonstrates that P2X2 receptors are trimers but that P2X6 receptor subunits do not oligomerize."
  46. (2005). ATP and purinergic receptor-dependent membrane traffic in bladder umbrella cells."
  47. (1984). ATP and the autonomy of the contractile vacuole in Amoeba proteus."
  48. (1987). ATP and the contractile vacuole in Amoeba proteus: mechnism of action of exogenous ATP and related nucleotides."
  49. (2004). ATP binding at human P2X1 receptors. Contribution of aromatic and basic amino acids revealed using mutagenesis and partial agonists."
  50. (1978). ATP increases chemoattractant induced cyclic GMP accumulation in Dictyostelium Discoideum."
  51. (1999). ATP reception and chemosensory adaptation in Tetrahymena thermophila."
  52. (2002). ATP-induced internalization of amphibian epithelial P2X receptors is linked to channel opening."
  53. (2001). Bacterial ion channels and their eukaryotic homologues."
  54. (2002). BEACH family of proteins: phylogenetic and functional analysis of six Dictyostelium BEACH proteins."
  55. (1983). Binding of cAMP and adenosine derivatives to Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Relationships of binding, chemotactic, and antagonistic activities."
  56. (2005). Biochemical and functional evidence for heteromeric assembly of P2X1 and P2X1 subunits."
  57. (2003). Biochemical evidence for a P2Y-like receptor in Tetrahymena thermophila."
  58. (2000). Ca(2+) signalling is not required for chemotaxis in Dictyostelium." Embo J
  59. (2005). Ca2+ regulation in the absence of the iplA gene product in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  60. (1996). Ca2+ responses to ATP via purinoceptors in the early embryonic chick retina."
  61. (1999). Calcium imaging with chemiluminescence."
  62. (1999). Calcium levels during cell cycle correlate with cell fate of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  63. (1996). Calmidazolium leads to an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in Dictyostelium discoideum by induction of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+."
  64. (1993). Calmodulin and the contractile vacuole complex in mitotic cells of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  65. (1987). Calmodulin antagonists depress calcium and potassium currents in ventricular and vascular myocytes."
  66. (1982). Cell surface binding of adenosine to Dictyostelium and inhibition of pulsatile signalling."
  67. (2000). Cellular release of and response to ATP as key determinants of the set-point of signal transduction pathways."
  68. (2006). Cellular responses to environmental contaminants in amoebic cells of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum."
  69. (1994). Challenge with high concentrations of cyclic AMP induces transient changes in the cytosolic free calcium concentration in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  70. (2001). Characterisation and expression of ATP P2X4 receptor from embryonic chick skeletal muscle."
  71. (1994). Characterisation of an intracellular Ca2+ pump in Dictyostelium."
  72. (1989). Characterization of a vacuolar proton ATPase in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  73. (1994). Clathrin heavy chain functions in sorting and secretion of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  74. (1992). Clathrin heavy chain is required for pinocytosis, the presence of large vacuoles, and development in Dictyostelium."
  75. (2000). Clinical and environmental isolates of Burkholderia cepacia exhibit differential cytotoxicity towards macrophages and mast cells."
  76. (2001). Cloning and characterization of a functional P2X receptor from larval bullfrog skin."
  77. (2002). Cloning and characterization of two novel zebrafish P2X receptor subunits."
  78. (1993). Cloning and functional expression of a brain G-protein-coupled ATP receptor."
  79. (1996). Cloning OF P2X5 and P2X6 receptors and the distribution and properties of an extended family of ATP-gated ion channels."
  80. (1995). Cloning vectors for the production of proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  81. (2003). Cloning, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the chicken P2X1 receptor."
  82. (1995). Coexpression of P2X2 and P2X3 receptor subunits can account for ATP-gated currents in sensory neurons."
  83. (1978). Combined effect of cytochalasin A and adenosine triphosphate on Physarum polycephalum."
  84. (1991). concentration and inhibition of the ATP response, with complete inhibition induced within a 10 fold increase in Cu 2+ concentration. This is in contrast to the more gradual relationship determined for the (Milne and Coukell
  85. (2002). Conserved cysteine residues in the extracellular loop of the human P2X(1) receptor form disulfide bonds and are involved in receptor trafficking to the cell surface."
  86. (2001). Conserved negatively charged residues are not required for ATP action at P2X(1) receptors."
  87. (2004). Contribution of calcium ions to P2X channel responses."
  88. (2005). Contribution of conserved glycine residues to ATP action at human P2X receptors: mutagenesis indicates that the glycine at position 250 is important for channel function."
  89. (2006). Contribution of endoplasmic reticulum to Ca(2+) signals in Dictyostelium depends on extracellular Ca(2+)."
  90. (1999). Contribution of individual subunits to the multimeric P2X(2) receptor: estimates based on methanethiosulfonate block at T336C."
  91. (2005). Contribution of transmembrane regions to ATP-gated P2X2 channel permeability dynamics."
  92. (1999). Contributions of the C-terminal domain to the control of P2X receptor desensitization."
  93. (2002). Control of P2X(2) channel permeability by the cytosolic domain."
  94. (2007). Copine A is required for cytokinesis, contractile vacuole function, and development in Dictyostelium."
  95. (2005). Copine A, a calciumdependent membrane-binding protein, transiently localizes to the plasma membrane and intracellular vacuoles in Dictyostelium."
  96. (2007). Cysteine substitution mutants give structural insight and identify ATP binding and activation sites at P2X receptors."
  97. (2001). Cytokinesis failure in clathrinminus cells is caused by cleavage furrow instability."
  98. (2004). Cytosolic [Ca2+] transients in dictyostelium discoideum depend on the filling state of internal stores and on an active sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) Ca2+ pump."
  99. (2002). Defects in cytokinesis, actin reorganization and the contractile vacuole in cells deficient in RhoGDI."
  100. (2003). Deletion of the P2X7 nucleotide receptor reveals its regulatory roles in bone formation and resorption."
  101. (2003). Dependence of purinergic P2X receptor activity on ectodomain structure."
  102. (1997). Desensitization of the P2X(2) receptor controlled by alternative splicing."
  103. (1999). Detection of local ATP release from activated platelets using cell surface-attached firefly luciferase."
  104. (1994). Developmental decisions in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  105. (2004). dictyBase: a new Dictyostelium discoideum genome database."
  106. (2008). Dictyostelium MEGAPs: F-BAR domain proteins that regulate motility and membrane tubulation in contractile vacuoles."
  107. (2001). Dictyostelium: Evolution, Cell biology, and the Development of Multicellularity,
  108. (1997). Different sensitivities to pH of ATP-induced currents at four cloned P2X receptors."
  109. (2007). Differential role of extracellular histidines in copper, zinc, magnesium and proton modulation of the P2X7 purinergic receptor."
  110. (2005). Disruption of lipid rafts inhibits P2X1 receptor mediated currents and arterial vasoconstriction."
  111. (1982). Distantly related sequences in the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP-requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold."
  112. (2007). Divergent calcium signaling in RBCs from Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata--Tropiduridae) strengthen classification in lizard evolution."
  113. (1986). DNA sequences required for expression of a Dictyostelium actin gene."
  114. (1999). Drainin required for membrane fusion of the contractile vacuole in Dictyostelium is the prototype of a protein family also represented in man."
  115. (2002). Dynamics of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in the contractile vacuole complex and the endosomal pathway of Dictyostelium cells."
  116. (1997). Early expression of a novel nucleotide receptor in the neural plate of Xenopus embryos."
  117. (2000). Effect of shear stress on the release of soluble ectoenzymes ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase along with endogenous ATP from vascular endothelial cells."
  118. (2000). Effects of diadenosine polyphosphates (Ap(n)As) and adenosine polyphospho guanosines (Ap(n)Gs) on rat mesenteric artery P2X receptor ion channels."
  119. (1997). Effects of divalent cations, protons and calmidazolium at the rat P2X7 receptor."
  120. (1997). Effects of extracellular pH on agonism and antagonism at a recombinant P2X2 receptor."
  121. (2007). Efficient expression and primary purification of 6-his tagged human Fas ligand in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  122. (1988). Electrophysiological properties of Dictyostelium derived from membrane potential measurements with microelectrodes."
  123. (2000). Embryonic expression of a P2X(3) receptor encoding gene in zebrafish."
  124. (1975). Enhanced cell aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum by ATP activation of Cyclic AMP receptors."
  125. (2007). Evidence for functional P2X4/P2X7 heteromeric receptors."
  126. (2001). Evidence that release of adenosine triphosphate from endothelial cells during increased shear stress is vesicular."
  127. (2000). Expression and one-step purification of Plasmodium proteins in dictyostelium."
  128. (1998). Expression of a bioactive, single-chain choriogonadotropin in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  129. (1991). Expression of human antithrombin III in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum."
  130. (1999). Expression of two ATP-gated ion channels, P2X5 and P2X6, in developing chick skeletal muscle."
  131. (1998). Extracellular ATP causes apoptosis and necrosis of cultured mesangial cells via P2Z/P2X7 receptors."
  132. (2006). Extracellular ATP in plants. Visualization, localization, and analysis of physiological significance in growth and signaling."
  133. (2006). Extracellular ATP induces the accumulation of superoxide via NADPH oxidases in Arabidopsis."
  134. (1980). Extracellular ATP, ecto-ATPase and calcium influx in Dictyostelium discoideum cells."
  135. (2007). Extracellular ATP: an unexpected role as a signaler in plants."
  136. (2005). Extracellular histidine residues identify common structural determinants in the copper/zinc P2X2 receptor modulation."
  137. (1999). Extracellular sodium regulates airway ciliary motility by inhibiting a P2X receptor."
  138. (1998). Fatty acids induce release of Ca2+ from acidosomal stores and activate capacitative Ca2+ entry in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  139. (1997). Fluid-phase uptake by macropinocytosis in Dictyostelium."
  140. (1995). From virus to vaccine: developments using the simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum."
  141. (2004). Functional characterisation of a P2X receptor from schistosoma mansoni."
  142. (2004). Functional characterization of contractile vacuole isolated from Amoeba proteus."
  143. (1996). Functional expression of rat GLUT 1 glucose transporter in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  144. (2000). Functional overlap of the dictyostelium RasG, RasD and RasB proteins."
  145. (2004). Functional regulation of P2X6 receptors by N-linked glycosylation: identification of a novel alpha betamethylene ATP-sensitive phenotype."
  146. (2004). G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of P2X1 receptors does not involve direct channel phosphorylation."
  147. (2006). GABA induces terminal differentiation of Dictyostelium through a GABAB receptor."
  148. (2004). Gain and loss of channel function by alanine substitutions in the transmembrane segments of the rat ATP-gated P2X2 receptor."
  149. (1989). Gene replacement in Dictyostelium: generation of myosin null mutants."
  150. (2001). Genetic approaches to dissect the mechanisms of two distinct pathways of cell cycle-coupled cytokinesis in Dictyostelium."
  151. (1975). Genetic control of development of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum."
  152. (2001). Genomic structure, developmental distribution and functional properties of the chicken P2X(5) receptor."
  153. (1998). GlnK, a PII-homologue: structure reveals ATP binding site and indicates how the Tloops may be involved in molecular recognition."
  154. (2005). Glycoprotein gp130 of dictyostelium discoideum influences macropinocytosis and adhesion."
  155. (2000). GolvesinGFP fusions as distinct markers for Golgi and post-Golgi vesicles in Dictyostelium cells."
  156. (1970). Growth of myxameobae of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum in axenic culture."
  157. (1999). Hetero-oligomeric assembly of P2X receptor subunits. Specificities exist with regard to possible partners."
  158. (1988). Heterogeneity of conductance states in calcium channels of skeletal muscle."
  159. (2002). Heteromultimeric P2X(1/2) receptors show a novel sensitivity to extracellular pH."
  160. (2002). Heteromultimerization modulates P2X receptor functions through participating extracellular and C-terminal subdomains."
  161. (2005). High zinc sensitivity and pore formation in an invertebrate P2X receptor."
  162. (2003). Histidine 140 plays a key role in the inhibitory modulation of the P2X4 nucleotide receptor by copper but not zinc."
  163. (2005). Identification and characterization of a novel alpha-kinase with a von Willebrand factor A-like motif localized to the contractile vacuole and Golgi complex in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  164. (2005). Identification and characterization of splice variants of the human P2X7 ATP channel."
  165. (1999). Identification of a domain involved in ATP-gated ionotropic receptor subunit assembly."
  166. (2002). Identification of a non-canonical tyrosine-based endocytic motif in an ionotropic receptor."
  167. (2004). Identification of a trafficking motif involved in the stabilization and polarization of P2X receptors."
  168. (1998). Identification of amino acid residues contributing to desensitization of the P2X2 receptor channel."
  169. (2000). Identification of amino acid residues contributing to the ATP-binding site of a purinergic P2X receptor."
  170. (1997). Identification of amino acid residues contributing to the pore of a P2X receptor."
  171. (1997). Identification of an ectonucleoside diphosphokinase and its contribution to interconversion of P2 receptor agonists."
  172. (2007). Identification of an intersubunit cross-link between substituted cysteine residues located in the putative ATP binding site of the P2X1 receptor."
  173. (2001). Identification of proteins involved in cytokinesis of Dictyostelium."
  174. (1993). Imaging calcium dynamics in living plants using semi-synthetic recombinant aequorins."
  175. (2006). Impaired flow-dependent control of vascular tone and remodeling in P2X4-deficient mice."
  176. (1992). Inducible expression of calmodulin antisense RNA in Dictyostelium cells inhibits the completion of cytokinesis."
  177. (1982). Inhibition by adenosine of aggregation centre initiation and cyclic AMP binding in Dictyostelium."
  178. (2008). Interaction of P2 purinergic receptors with cellular macromolecules."
  179. (2002). Intercellular calcium signaling in astrocytes via ATP release through connexin hemichannels."
  180. (2001). International union of pharmacology. XXIV. Current status of the nomenclature and properties of P2X receptors and their subunits."
  181. (1997). Intracellular Ca2+ signals in Dictyostelium chemotaxis are mediated exclusively by Ca2+ influx."
  182. (1996). Intracellular free calcium responses during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium cells."
  183. (1995). Introduction of calcium buffers into the cytosol of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae alters cell morphology and inhibits chemotaxis."
  184. (2006). Involvement of P2 receptors in the growth and survival of neurons in the CNS."
  185. (1999). Involvement of the Ca2+-ATPase PAT1 and the contractile vacuole in calcium regulation in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  186. (1994). Isolation and initial characterization of the bipartite contractile vacuole complex from Dictyostelium discoideum."
  187. (1993). Kinetics of endosomal pH evolution in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae. Study by fluorescence spectroscopy."
  188. (2007). Lack of evidence for direct phosphorylation of recombinantly expressed P2X(2) and P2X (3) receptors by protein kinase C."
  189. (2001). LGICdb: the ligand-gated ion channel database."
  190. (2005). Loss of the Dictyostelium RasC protein alters vegetative cell size, motility and endocytosis."
  191. (1999). LvsA, a protein related to the mouse beige protein, is required for cytokinesis in Dictyostelium."
  192. (2003). Mechanisms of release of nucleotides and integration of their action as P2X- and P2Y-receptor activating molecules."
  193. (1998). Membrane topology of an ATP-gated ion channel (P2X receptor)."
  194. (1970). Metabolism of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum grown in axenic culture."
  195. (1999). Modulation of ATP-responses at recombinant rP2X4 receptors by extracellular pH and zinc."
  196. (1999). Modulatory activity of extracellular H+ and Zn2+ on ATP-responses at rP2X1 and rP2X3 receptors."
  197. (2003). Molecular characterization of the zebrafish P2X receptor subunit gene family."
  198. (2000). Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel ATP P2X receptor subtype from embryonic chick skeletal muscle."
  199. (2000). Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the zebrafish ATP-gated ionotropic receptor P2X(3) subunit."
  200. (1995). Molecular cloning of an intracellular P-type ATPase from Dictyostelium that is up-regulated in calcium-adapted cells."
  201. (2005). Molecular determinants of the agonist binding domain of a P2X receptor channel."
  202. (2002). Molecular physiology of P2X receptors."
  203. (2006). Molecular properties of P2X receptors."
  204. (2003). Monomeric and dimeric byproducts are the principal functional elements of higher order P2X1 concatamers."
  205. (2005). Morphological and functional analysis of Rac1B in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  206. (2002). Multiple signalling pathways connect chemoattractant receptors and calcium channels in Dictyostelium."
  207. (2005). Mutagenesis studies of conserved proline residues of human P2X receptors for ATP indicate that proline 272 contributes to channel function."
  208. (2002). Mutational analysis of the conserved cysteines of the rat P2X2 purinoceptor."
  209. (2000). Myosin II-independent cytokinesis in Dictyostelium: its mechanism and implications."
  210. (1998). N-Linked glycosylation is essential for the functional expression of the recombinant P2X2 receptor."
  211. (1999). Neighboring glycine residues are essential for P2X2 receptor/channel function."
  212. (1994). New structural motif for ligand-gated ion channels defined by an ionotropic ATP receptor."
  213. (2005). Non-canonical YXXGPhi endocytic motifs: recognition by AP2 and preferential utilization in P2X4 receptors."
  214. (1990). Normal chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum cells with a depolarized plasma membrane potential."
  215. (2002). Nucleotidase cascades are catalyzed by secreted proteins of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis."
  216. (2008). Nucleotide- and nucleoside-converting ectoenzymes: Important modulators of purinergic signalling cascade."
  217. (2001). On the contribution of the first transmembrane domain to whole-cell current through an ATP-gated ionotropic P2X receptor."
  218. (2000). Optimizing heterologous expression in dictyostelium: importance of 5' codon adaptation."
  219. (2000). Osmotic stress response in Dictyostelium is mediated by cAMP." Embo J
  220. (2000). P2 purinergic receptors: modulation of cell function and therapeutic potential."
  221. (2006). P2 receptor web: complexity and fine-tuning."
  222. (2008). P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease."
  223. (2002). P2X receptor trafficking in neurons is subunit specific."
  224. (2008). P2X receptors: epithelial ion channels and regulators of salt and water transport."
  225. (2000). P2X(1) receptor membrane redistribution and downregulation visualized by using receptor-coupled green fluorescent protein chimeras."
  226. (2002). P2X(1) receptor subunit contribution to gating revealed by a dominant negative PKC mutant."
  227. (2002). P2X(1) receptor-deficient mice establish the native P2X receptor and a P2Y6-like receptor in arteries."
  228. (1998). P2X1 and P2X3 receptors form stable trimers: a novel structural motif of ligand-gated ion channels."
  229. (2001). P2X3 knock-out mice reveal a major sensory role for urothelially released ATP."
  230. (2007). P2X3 receptor involvement in pain states."
  231. (2002). P2X4 and P2X6 receptors associate with VEcadherin in human endothelial cells."
  232. (2003). P2X7 subunit-like immunoreactivity in the nucleus of visceral smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig."
  233. (2006). Pannexin-1 mediates large pore formation and interleukin-1beta release by the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor."
  234. (2005). Parasite nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes and host purinergic signalling."
  235. (2008). Patch-clamp coordinated spectroscopy shows P2X2 receptor permeability dynamics require cytosolic domain rearrangements but not Panx-1 channels."
  236. (2008). Permeation Properties of a P2X Receptor in the Green Algae Ostreococcus tauri."
  237. Pharmacological and biophysical properties of the human P2X5 receptor."
  238. (2006). Pharmacological profiles of cloned mammalian P2Y-receptor subtypes."
  239. (2000). Pharmacology of cloned P2X receptors."
  240. (1987). Pituitary Ca2+ channels: blockade by conventional and novel Ca2+ antagonists."
  241. (1986). Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ribosomes."
  242. (2001). Polar residues of the second transmembrane domain influence cation permeability of the ATP-gated P2X(2) receptor."
  243. (1999). Pore dilation of neuronal P2X receptor channels."
  244. (1997). Potent inhibition by trivalent cations of ATPgated channels."
  245. (2003). PPNDS is an agonist, not an antagonist, for the ATP receptor of Paramecium."
  246. (2004). Preparation of genomic DNA from Dictyostelium discoideum for PCR analysis."
  247. (2004). Production of the soluble human Fas ligand by Dictyostelium discoideum cultivated on a synthetic medium."
  248. (1990). Properties of three different ion channels in the plasma membrane of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum."
  249. (1993). Protein glycosylation. Structural and functional aspects."
  250. (1993). Proton pumps populate the contractile vacuoles of Dictyostelium amoebae."
  251. (1972). Purinergic nerves."
  252. (2002). Purinergic P2X(2) receptor desensitization depends on coupling between ectodomain and C-terminal domain."
  253. (2008). Purinergic signalling and disorders of the central nervous system."
  254. (2006). Purinergic signalling."
  255. (2008). Purinergic-mediated Ca(2+) influx in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  256. (1996). Purinoceptors: ontogeny and phylogeny."
  257. (2001). Rab11-like GTPase associates with and regulates the structure and function of the contractile vacuole system in dictyostelium."
  258. (1999). Random mutagenesis and screening of complex glycoproteins: expression of human gonadotropins in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  259. (2001). Recombinant aequorin and green fluorescent protein as valuable tools in the study of cell signalling."
  260. (2000). Recombinant aequorin as reporter of changes in intracellular calcium in mammalian cells."
  261. (1995). Recombinant glycoprotein production in the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum."
  262. (2000). Reduced vas deferens contraction and male infertility in mice lacking P2X1 receptors."
  263. (2003). Regulation and modulation of pH in the brain."
  264. (2008). Regulation of contractile vacuole formation and activity in Dictyostelium."
  265. (2007). Regulation of P2X4 receptors by lysosomal targeting, glycan protection and exocytosis."
  266. (2006). Regulation of the desensitization and ion selectivity of ATP-gated P2X2 channels by phosphoinositides."
  267. (2005). Release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum contributes to Ca2+ signaling in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  268. (2005). Responses of the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium to external ATP and GTP."
  269. (2000). Roles of individual N-glycans for ATP potency and expression of the rat P2X1 receptor."
  270. (1999). Secretion of ATP-utilizing enzymes, nucleoside diphosphate kinase and ATPase, by Mycobacterium bovis BCG: sequestration of ATP from macrophage P2Z receptors?"
  271. (1989). Semi-synthetic aequorins with improved sensitivity to Ca2+ ions."
  272. (2002). Sequence and analysis of chromosome 2 of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  273. (2001). Signal transduction in red blood cells of the lizards Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae (Squamata, Teiidae)."
  274. (2002). Size of sidechain at channel pore mouth affects Ca(2+) block of P2X(2) receptor."
  275. (2000). State-dependent crossinhibition between transmitter-gated cation channels."
  276. (2004). Structural elements involved in activation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor."
  277. (2007). Structure of acid-sensing ion channel 1 at 1.9 A resolution and low pH."
  278. (2003). Subunit arrangement in P2X receptors."
  279. (1998). Subunit stoichiometry of the epithelial sodium channel."
  280. (1979). Synthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum secretory proteins in Xenopus laevis oocytes."
  281. (1995). Targeted disruption of the Dictyostelium myosin essential light chain gene produces cells defective in cytokinesis and morphogenesis."
  282. (2002). The analysis of 100 genes supports the grouping of three highly divergent amoebae: Dictyostelium, Entamoeba, and Mastigamoeba."
  283. (2003). The AP-1 clathrin-adaptor is required for lysosomal enzymes sorting and biogenesis of the contractile vacuole complex in Dictyostelium cells."
  284. (1997). The cell adhesion molecule DdCAD-1 in Dictyostelium is targeted to the cell surface by a nonclassical transport pathway involving contractile vacuoles."
  285. (2006). The contractile vacuole in Ca 2+ -regulation in Dictyostelium: its essential function for cAMP-induced Ca 2+ -influx."
  286. (1999). The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein."
  287. (1994). The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is a dual ATP and chloride channel."
  288. (2001). The Dictyostelium Bcr/Abrrelated protein DRG regulates both Rac- and Rab-dependent pathways."
  289. (2002). The Dictyostelium LvsA protein is localized on the contractile vacuole and is required for osmoregulation."
  290. (1990). The extrachromosomal replication of Dictyostelium plasmid Ddp2 requires a cis-acting element and a plasmid-encoded trans-acting factor."
  291. (1995). The G protein beta subunit is essential for multiple responses to chemoattractants in Dictyostelium."
  292. (2005). The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum."
  293. (1998). The human P2X4 receptor gene is alternatively spliced." Gene
  294. (1977). The influence of light and different ATP concentrations on cell aggregation in cyclic AMP sensitive and insensitive species of the cellular slime molds."
  295. (1989). The membrane potential of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is mainly generated by an electrogenic proton pump."
  296. (2006). The monomeric clathrin assembly protein, AP180, regulates contractile vacuole size in Dictyostelium discoideum."
  297. (1997). The past, present and future of purine nucleotides as signalling molecules."
  298. (1996). The pharmacology of mechanogated membrane ion channels."
  299. (2003). The Q motif: a newly identified motif in DEAD box helicases may regulate ATP binding and hydrolysis."
  300. (2002). The role of histidine residues in modulation of the rat P2X(2) purinoceptor by zinc and pH."
  301. (2000). The role of positively charged amino acids in ATP recognition by human P2X1 receptors."
  302. (2003). The salivary purine nucleosidase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti."
  303. (2004). Time-resolved measurement of state-specific P2X2 ion channel cytosolic gating motions."
  304. (1997). Tissue distribution of the P2X7 receptor."
  305. (1998). Topological analysis of the ATP-gated ionotropic [correction of ionotrophic] P2X2 receptor subunit."
  306. (1999). Toward an understanding of the biochemical and pharmacological complexity of the saliva of a hematophagous sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis."
  307. (1995). Transfected aequorin in the measurement of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c). A critical evaluation."
  308. (2007). Transformation of Dictyostelium discoideum with plasmid DNA."
  309. (2004). Trimeric architecture of homomeric P2X2 and heteromeric P2X1+2 receptor subtypes."
  310. (2002). Tubular-vesicular transformation in the contractile vacuole system of Dictyostelium."
  311. (1988). Two ATP-activated conductances in bullfrog atrial cells."
  312. (2002). Two members of the beige/CHS (BEACH) family are involved at different stages in the organization of the endocytic pathway in Dictyostelium."
  313. (2000). Unique functional properties of a sensory neuronal P2X ATP-gated channel from zebrafish."
  314. (2008). Unresolved issues and controversies in purinergic signalling."
  315. (1998). Using gadolinium to identify stretchactivated channels: technical considerations."
  316. (1999). Variables controlling the expression level of exogenous genes in Dictyostelium."
  317. (2000). Volume-sensitive purinergic signaling in human hepatocytes."
  318. (2008). Widespread duplications in the genomes of laboratory stocks of Dictyostelium discoideum."
  319. (2006). Zinc and copper: pharmacological probes and endogenous modulators of neuronal excitability."

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.