Location of Repository

Native-speakers tend to stress communicative fluency while non-native speakers tend to stress linguistic accuracy in error treatment : a classroom study conducted within the jurisdiction of the English language program in the Academic Division of Saudi Aramco Training Department

By Nafez Hamdan Salim Shahin


Within the context of communicative language Teaching, teachers have a tendency to\ud stress communicative fluency rather than linguistic accuracy in error treatment. This study\ud uses Aramco ESL teachers, students, and classes where teachers from different-educational\ud backgrounds teach English to adult Saudi employees within its English language program, as\ud an example to explore this tendency.\ud The study hypothesis that native-speakers, given their different educational\ud background tend to stress communicative fluency while the non-native speakers tend to stress\ud linguistic accuracy. Hence, the study attempts to present an account of how these teachers\ud look at errors and how they treat them in class, to reach some findings about this hypothesis.\ud The study applies multiple methods in data collection including a teacher's\ud questionnaire designed by the researcher, followed by classroom observations along with\ud audio-recordings of those classes. The classroom observation scheme used is adapted from\ud Spada and Frohlich's COLT observation Scheme-Part A- (Communicative Orientation of\ud Language Teaching). The students' preferences to error treatment were also explored by using\ud a students' questionnaire designed by the researcher, to add dimensions to the findings.\ud To analyse elements in the research context, Likert Scale for coding responses to the\ud questionnaires was used to provide numbers and percentages for analysis.\ud Then, samples of classroom discourse collected from the audio-recorded observations were\ud transcribed to analyse teachers behavior toward errors in class.\ud To add further dimensions to the findings, the findings were discussed in view of\ud Chaudron's illustration in his model: Features and Types of Corrective Reaction in the Model\ud of Discourse. The findings were also discussed in view of Chaudron's Table: Rate of Error\ud Production and Teacher Treatment, for the same reason.\ud By using Chaudron's model and table in the discussion, the study aims to provide a\ud sound interpretation of the strategies that Aramco teachers use to treat errors and whether\ud these strategies reflect principles of Communicative Language Teaching.\ud The study identifies several distinctive issues from the research context including\ud opinions and beliefs of Aramco teachers and students about errors treatment. It also identifies\ud types of strategies these teachers use in treating their students' errors in class, and provides\ud conclusions that demonstrate that both NSs and NNSs have beliefs and strategies that promote\ud both communicative fluency and linguistic accuracy although NNSs showed noticeable\ud tendency for linguistic accuracy more than their native-speaking counterparts did

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2003
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/4727

Suggested articles



  1. (Arabic) should not be used in class at all.
  2. (correcting student's response) You would drink salty water.
  3. (eliciting more information from student) good one with the 's' (meaning third person singular 's') Okay, looks good Tareg (name of student attempting the sentence) What...?
  4. (inaudible)... if you want to know blood type, it is written on your ID card.
  5. (Reads from text) facility, something or a place that is built for... (inaudible)... Saudi Aramco has provided the employees with many sport facilities.
  6. รค for 'apple'?
  7. A lot of error correction can negatively affect my speaking skills.
  8. Accracy of form in my written
  9. an organization for geologists. Okay, organization... a group of people working together. Let's go to number six. (turning to a student) Saeed, please number six.
  10. (1971). and correction: a study of native-non-native conversations.
  11. and in English it's a pin. Alright, thank you. Let's go again with the noun. Go ahead please.
  12. And the answer?
  13. And what about the letters?
  14. And what am I doing now. I am standing and I am... (Tr snores.
  15. and you do that...
  16. anything for study or work.
  17. (2000). Arabic should not be used in class at
  18. Because help you... help you vomit.
  19. because it's the employees. So that is 'badges'; the outside identification. Let's go on to the next one. Number six. (turning to two students) Anwar and Faisal please.
  20. blood type or the kind of blood. Alright, let's go ahead and read on that one. (turning to two students) So, Majid and Hussein, please take the blood type.
  21. bought a home for a good price in a nice community.
  22. can drink it.
  23. Code or organization number.
  24. (1981). Communicative Language Teaching. Cambridge:
  25. community, the one for living, the one for living. So, you buy the house in a community. Okay, that's number six... 'community' again. Let's go on to the next exercise (turning to two students) Majid and Hussein, number one.
  26. confirming the negative form of 'can') You can't drink it. It's water and in the adjective salty.
  27. Correct grammar is the most important part in
  28. Correctting grammar errors should be
  29. Could you possibly read the question please?
  30. dabbous' (the Arabic word for "pin)
  31. drawing idea etc. from which something can be made.
  32. E- g-y-p-t again.
  33. Facility is a building that have a facility with it.
  34. fasten the paper to the wall. Okay, and (turning to a student)
  35. Give me the suggestion again.
  36. good enough. What is a community?
  37. haven't been working. Okay, what I need to do. Um... do you feel under stress at all? (Tr. Paraphrasing) Do you feel stress, under pressure?
  38. he is dizzy. He's dizzy.
  39. He makes it taller by one finger.
  40. He measured. Now that's what it is. Well, what you "re doing when you say: 'marked' it's you can do it in two ways.
  41. He's going to call the doctor, correct...
  42. heatstroke you can have a high temperature,
  43. How about going to the hospital.
  44. How can I help you?
  45. How do I spell 'Egypt'?
  46. How do I spell Egypt? (Turing to the same student Omar) can you tell me?
  47. I am a doctor. Let me just... you want a nurse. Let's just write my
  48. I am snoring. I am snoring. (confirming the progressive form of "snore")
  49. I feel tired all the time. (reading from his index card)
  50. I go to bathroom?
  51. I have a rise in temperature. If I feel very very hot. Can anyone tell me what the ... the problem is? If I have a high temperature?
  52. I mean: he marked the correct length with a finger length.
  53. I want you to give me some (a student interrupts: what about a rise in temperature? )
  54. I would like the teacher to give me work to do on my own in class.
  55. I would like the teacher to let me do some work
  56. I would... I'd... can you just repeat it after me? I would...
  57. I'd like somebody to give me some advice or a suggestion. Rami, I got a big problem. I got a terrible headache. I've got very very bad headache. Can you give me an advice or any suggestion at all? Wadee? (asking a student)
  58. I'll come and check. (Students were still working individually on their assignment when the buzzer went off announcing end of class time) correct form rather than meaning, which discourages me from speaking in English.
  59. I'll just write it here. (Tr writes 'dizziness' on the board) Um. What am I doing now?
  60. I've got a backache, can you give me some advice please.
  61. I've got a good suggestion.
  62. If I were you, I would ... u... I'd (Teacher writes student's sentence)
  63. If I were you, I would relax.
  64. If I were you, I' d relax.
  65. If I were you, I'd take a panadol.
  66. If I were you...
  67. If I were you... (waiting for student to complete)
  68. if we go to 'C', and the first are (turning to a student) Wadee, I'll ask you... Number one.
  69. If you have a heat sun (stork) (meaning sun or heat stroke)
  70. If you have sun... (waiting for student to correct himself)
  71. If you want my advice, you shouldn't go on playing. You should go home and rest.
  72. interrupts and stops tape-recorder) Okay, just before we listen, um... Ahmad, could you read number one please. Just read the question.
  73. Is that gong to be king or kings?
  74. It contains salt (confirming student's response. ) Correct, exactly Majed. The water contains salt. Why... why did you think you would drink salty water? Any ideas? Any suggestions?
  75. It contains salt.
  76. It could help you vomit... salty water?
  77. It is a little too late for that. It's the last ten minutes. I can't let you go.
  78. it is valid for seven years. Alright, it's the correct dates. I can use it. I can use it. Now, let's look at this other ID card. Okay, now we'll say this goes over here from May 20th 97 and finishes
  79. It wasri t very clear. (T. writes the answer on the board)
  80. it's an area for living. So, that's the main difference. Remember, a facility is going to be a building for working and a community is what? (turning to a student) Yousef..
  81. it's more for working, right? A facility is for work or like you say a special reason. Okay, Ahmad (turning to another student) a community. What is a community?
  82. It's not good ...
  83. it's not valid. Here it finishes.
  84. Jamal lives in the same community as his parents but at ... (unclear) he's away.
  85. last problem is as you know I am a teacher and I've problems in my
  86. let's drop 'e', you suggest?
  87. let's see what 'facility' is and see if we have any problems. Okay? (turning to two students) Abdul-Azizi and Turky,
  88. like a camp, is a community, a place for living? And this school, (turning to a student) Anwar, what is this school?
  89. My last problem is. I've got a backache. I've got a backache... Okay... It's very very sore. Majid, could you give me some advice or make a suggestion?
  90. now, community (turning to Faisal) watch here. Which one is for living?
  91. Okay good, 'He' and the verb?
  92. okay, good advice. I'll try to remember. Okay, that's fine. Thank you for the good advice. Right, okay, I am going to give you a handout. I'll just hand it out first (T. distributes handouts.
  93. okay, now, let me show you something a little bit extra. Okay, look at this meaning. It says any of several classes of blood.
  94. okay, now, tell you what, Ali, just read the sentence. Alright? You don't fill the correct word. Habib will give me the correct word.
  95. Okay, okay, so give me some help Habib (turning to another student) what is this in Arabic?
  96. okay, so I will do the same thing. I put the memo on the wall with
  97. okay, that one is valid. It has the correct information and the correct date. Okay, let's go now to number three. (turning to two students) Abdul-Aziz and Turky,
  98. Okay, that's a good suggestion... good idea.
  99. Okay, the important thing there is the word 'blood type'. Okay number four. (turning to two students) Yousof and Ahmad.
  100. okay. He worked the length with fingerprints?
  101. on this one over here, (pointing at the word 'design' on the
  102. one. (calling on another student.
  103. outplace for living
  104. problem, no problem, now, let's look at this. I'll put this up for you. (T. writes 'facility' and 'community' on the board) Okay, now a facility, a facility is what?
  105. put it in the past form.
  106. remember, be careful of this, be careful... I heard some say 'facility'. Facility is a place for what? (turning to a student) Yousof?
  107. Repeat after me... nausious
  108. S: (a student interrupts) a nurse?
  109. S: (a student interrupts) we'll [sweet] a lot of [sweet].
  110. S: (reads from text) I put the new papers of my work together with some office pins.
  111. S: (reads from text) Jamal lives in the same community as his parents but a few streets away.
  112. S: (reads question #2) what is Sami going to do now? He's going to call a doctor.
  113. S: (reads question and answers) what advice did Ali give to Saleh? Re-writing the report, or re-write the report.
  114. S: a building for working. and 'community'.
  115. S: a camp... like a camp?
  116. S: a place for living.
  117. S: because he is ... he is dizzy.
  118. S: because he is dizzy.
  119. S: change the ' ge' into 'gy'
  120. S: community is a place or area for living.
  121. S: go to the hospital (Teacher writes suggestion on the board)
  122. S: measure the correct length with a finger.
  123. S: not use it.
  124. S: organization for geologists ...
  125. S: the doctor or a doctor...
  126. S: the facility is ...
  127. S: the thief left fingerprints on the wall when he touched it because his hands were dirty.
  128. S: to [plain] (wrong pronunciation of [plaen] meaning
  129. S: with a ...
  130. S2: (reads) Ali liked the design of the new book.
  131. S2: [a] good idea... but I left my case in my car and can't open it.
  132. S2: blood type. (student pronounces blood type as [bludtype] (T. again does not correct pronunciation)
  133. S2: Heat-exhasion (pronounces it correctly)
  134. S2: The hospital?
  135. S2: What should I do about my leg? I hurt it playing football...
  136. salty? Salty water? What is it?
  137. Security employees in Aramco gates wear badge.
  138. So facility is for working, community is for living. So, I don't believe we have any more problems on this. Now, what's up?
  139. so he measures with the finger with the finger, he measures but
  140. so let's go with this next one over here. To exercise number three and on exercise number three, we have twelve sentences. So go ahead and work on those, if you have any problems, I'll come around and check.
  141. so number seven is 'blood type'. Okay, we only had one problem with these words. That was 'facility' Abdul-Aziz, what is a facility?
  142. sometimes, Okay, we're not sure, we don t know what
  143. sorry, I think you are correct, but I didn't hear you.
  144. Speaking correct English is much more
  145. Speaking the language is much more
  146. Ss: have salt... have salt.
  147. T: (Calls on a student. ) Fahad, if I were you, I'd listen carefully. How about listening? If you look here (T points at handout) we've got a dialogue between... who of the two people? (addressing question to students)
  148. T: (calls on a student) Rami, can you help me out here, I am confused from the beginning.
  149. T: (confirms and corrects) Nausious
  150. T: (hearing noises) Hay, hay, excuse me, excuse me, hold it, hold it, start it again.
  151. T: (repeats student's response) opposite of fresh water.
  152. T: (teacher writes answer on the board) Goodman, he's going to call...
  153. T: (turns to another student) Hashim, number two please.
  154. T: (writes student's sentence on the board) I pin the paper on the wall.
  155. T: [pla: n], (not correcting pronunciation) okay, good, so design is the plan. It's your idea for doing something all right? So, give me a sentence with that...
  156. T: a place for living? No problem, just take a little while. Don't worry. (turning to a student) Habib, what is facility?
  157. T: I am dizzy. Rami, what is the noun from'dizzy'?
  158. T: I am sorry?
  159. T: I have a fever. Goodman, correct... a fever. (T writes 'fever' on the board)
  160. T: the pins. I just put the pins through the pants and that will hold the pants.
  161. T: to re-write the report.
  162. T: you feel tired all the time. Um, okay, let me think. Have you been working hard of work?
  163. Teacher should always correct my form
  164. Teacher should always correct my form errors.
  165. Teacher should correct all types of errors that
  166. Teacher should correct every error I make Q El El Q Q when I speak in English.
  167. Teacher should correct only errors that make
  168. Teacher should correct only my errors that Q Q Q El El make comprehension very difficult.
  169. Teacher should help me to correct my
  170. Teacher should help me to correct my self
  171. Teacher should immediately correct my error in
  172. Teacher should immediately correct my errors to avoid fossilization.
  173. Teacher should not correct every error I make
  174. Teacher should not let us work on our own in
  175. Teacher should only correct my errors
  176. Teacher should take the time to get the correct
  177. Teaching small groups in class helps me to El Q Q Q learn the language better.
  178. thank you gentlemen, well read, gentlemen. Okay, if we move on,
  179. Thanks, but I also have a really bad toothache... (Student pronounces toothache as [tothik]). (Teacher does not correct)
  180. That is 'fingerprints', fingerprints. Let's go down to number five. (turning to two students) All and Fahad.
  181. that's good. Alright... let's go on down to number seven. (turning to a student) Faisal, number seven.
  182. The (space) in Los Angles ... (unclear) costs many millions of dollars.
  183. the chair is
  184. the chair is comfortable
  185. The drawer designed...
  186. the important word here is lives. So, that is lives. Let's go again to number four. (turning to two students) Ali and Habib, let's do number four.
  187. the last one. Have we any volunteers? Any volunteers to do the last one. (turns to a students),
  188. the next problem is my head is spinning around. I feel unbalanced. I am...
  189. The organization code or the organization number, same thing, okay? Number one is the code. Let's go on to the next one. (turning to another two students) Abdil-Aziz and Turky, number two...
  190. The shirts were all the same design, but the different colors.
  191. there is a difference. If I measure first I measure... and I say worldwide up to here.
  192. Things are bad. John, first I have [troable]
  193. think I should explain the lesson...
  194. think you should explain the lesson by funny way... (unclear word from student)
  195. This is it not valid.
  196. this is the verb in the past. This is how you do it in the past. 'pinned' 'attach' or 'attached'. Okay, let's go now to number, okay Tariq and Bader, please number two.
  197. to see if you can get a new face... (dialogue finished)
  198. turn-taking lessons help me to El LI El 0 learn the language better.
  199. turns to another student) Omar, number one, this is B
  200. two gentlemen John and Allen. If you look at the word box here, (point at the handout) I'd like you to take one word from the box to try and complete the dialogue. So, let's just look at John. John says: 'what's the something...
  201. Using (Arabic) in class only when very
  202. Using a little Arabic in class is very
  203. Using a lot of (Arabic)in class is very helpful in
  204. Using a lot of Arabic in class helps
  205. Using a lot of Arabic in class helps me
  206. Using Arabic in class only when very
  207. Using audio-visual aids in class helps me to l h l b
  208. Valid for seven years.
  209. Wadee (turning to a student for an appropriate response)
  210. wait a minute, now, a community is a place for living, just to make it easy.
  211. wait a minute. Let's try with `design'. Okay the verb. Give me the subject. Okay, no problem, stick with me on this, now... 'design' is the verb. So what we need here is: subject-verb and object.
  212. we [sweat] (correcting pronunciation of the word [sweat])... we lose the water... we lose the water and salt.
  213. we can have one word written with a short answer.
  214. what am I doing?
  215. what do you do? Remember this word...
  216. What I am going to do. IT just send you to the nurse.
  217. what is it?
  218. what was the wrong with the report? (Teacher ignored error i. e. using 'the' with adj)
  219. what we need to do is just an example. First of all let's imagine... this is my clinic and...
  220. What's the matter? What's the problem? I'll let you work
  221. which place did Rahid first suggest for Omar to visit? Going to Egypt.
  222. Why did Ahmad drink some salty water?
  223. Why don't you go to the dentist?
  224. will you still... at a time... any volunteers. (Calling on a student) any hands?
  225. with a pin. Okay, there you have it. 'pin' is the verb, 'pin' is the
  226. With the same design. Okay, good one... let's go down to the next one and we'll try number three, and Yousef, please number three.
  227. would... let's contract it ... let's make a short form. I would (turning to students to provide the short form.
  228. you are good on that. You are good on that... um, now, on this one; just to make it easy. Give me: I, you, he, she, we,
  229. you can't use it. May 20th 01... Look at this it's
  230. you must carry a (space) passport u
  231. you're close on this. You're close. Now let's break it down and
  232. Your driver license (student pronounces 'license as [listen]) has information about your --- in case you are injured in an accident. (T. does not correct pronunciation)

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.