Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

'Warm Beer and Invincible Green Suburbs'? Examining the Realities of Rurality for Minority Ethnic Households

By Neil Chakraborti

Abstract

Popular constructions of rural England have perpetuated images of idyllic, problem free environments which have tended to mask the exclusionary processes that marginalise particular groups of rural 'others'. This includes minority ethnic 'others' whose experiences of rural life have been largely overlooked by academic studies. Previous research into 'race'-related issues has focused almost exclusively on the more urbanised areas of the country which typically contain larger minority ethnic populations, but such a focus has to some extent overshadowed the difficulties facing minority ethnic households living in rural areas where communities are traditionally less transient and feelings of isolation and alienation may be at a premium. The research upon which the thesis is based is drawn from predominantly qualitative material elicited from studies of rural towns and villages based in three English counties, and has been used to examine a range of issues relating to rural racism. The perceptions of minority ethnic groups are examined to identify their feelings about rural life, fear of racist harassment and experiences of victimisation, while the attitudes of established white rural communities are also assessed in an analysis of notions of community, identity and 'otherness' in a rural context. In addition, the thesis considers the way in which statutory and voluntary agencies respond to the needs of minority ethnic rural households and to problems of racist victimisation. The research findings illustrate the disturbing nature, extent and impact of racist victimisation in rural environments, and it is suggested that the 'invisibility' of the problem is compounded by weaknesses in agency responses and by the enduring appeal of idyllicised constructions of rurality. Romanticised notions of rural homogeneity, and the corresponding demonisation of the 'other', will inevitably have implications for minority ethnic households whose visible or cultural differences immediately set them apart from the prevailing norm of rural 'sameness'. At the same time though, the status of the 'other' may not be a permanent affiliation for all rural minority ethnic households, but instead is likely to be a more transient condition contingent to some extent upon individual circumstances and particular environments. Consequently, the thesis contends that the significance of racialised 'othering' in the rural will only be fully appreciated through a more nuanced conceptual understanding of the rural 'othering' process, and through a more holistic research agenda that takes account of the increasing diversification of rural space

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/4724

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1996). (I 999a) Challengging Racism in the Rural Idyll: Final Report of the Rural Race Equality Project Cormall,
  2. (1991). 1magined Country: Society, Culture and Environment,
  3. (1996). 1n Search of Englan& Popular Representations of Englishness and the English Countryside, Centre for Rural Economy Working Paper No.
  4. (2003). 2001 Home Office Citizenship Survey: People, Families and Communities', Home Office Research Study 270, London: Home Office.
  5. (2003). A Burning Issue in the Village,
  6. (2005). A Critical Reflection on Researching Black Muslim Women's Lives Post-September Ilth',
  7. (2003). Acceptable Hatred',
  8. Agyernan (eds) The New Countryside? Ethnicity, Nation and Exclusion in Contemporary Rural Britain,
  9. (2003). An 'Invisible' Problem? Uncovering the Nature of Racist Victimisation in Rural Suffolk',
  10. (1977). An Index of Rurality for England and Wales',
  11. (2001). An lntroduction to Criminological Theory (I" edition),
  12. (2002). An Unholy Alliance? Racism, Religion and Communalism',
  13. (2005). Anti-Jewish Attacks at Record Level',
  14. (2005). Anti-Semitic Attacks Rise to a Record Level',
  15. (2003). Antisemitism on the Streets' in P. Iganski and B. Kosmin (eds) A New Antisemitism? Debating Judeophobia in 21" Century
  16. (2005). Arise, the New Baltic State of East Anglia',
  17. (2003). Arrests for Burning of Gypsy Caravan",
  18. (2005). Association of Chief Police Officeis (ACPO)
  19. (2000). Being 'A Nosy Bloody Cow': Ethical and Methodological Issues in Researching Domestic Violence', in R. King and E. Wincup (eds) Doing Research on Crime andJustice,
  20. (1989). Black People, White Landscape',
  21. (1993). Black, While or Mhed Race? Race and Racism in the Lives of Young People ofMixed Parentage,
  22. (2004). BNP Beaten in By-Election',
  23. (1993). Bounding the Borders: Claiming Space and Making Space in Rural Scotland',
  24. (2002). Britain's Destiny: The New Atlantis? http: //www. landand-people. oriz/at] antis extinction. htm
  25. (2007). Burning Issues: Whiteness, Rurality and the Politics of Difference',
  26. (1994). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (2 nd edition),
  27. (2002). Collective Terminology to Describe the Minority Ethnic Population: The Persistence of Confusion and Ambiguity in Usage',
  28. (2003). Commission for Racial Equality (CRE)
  29. (2006). Commission for Rural Communities (2007) The State of the Countryside
  30. (1996). Community Care Needs of People ftom Minority Ethnic Groups in North Wanvickhire, Warwickshire: North Warwickshire Council for Voluntary Service.
  31. (2004). Community, Cohesion and the State',
  32. (2001). Community: Seeking Safety in an Insecure World,
  33. (1997). Conclusion: Marginality and Rural Others',
  34. (2003). Crime and Criminal Justice Policy,
  35. (2005). Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership
  36. (2002). Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships: The Future of Community Safety',
  37. (2006). Crime Concern and Policing in the Countryside: Evidence from Parish Councillors in West Mercia Constabulary, England',
  38. (1998). Crime Prevention and Community Safety: Politics, Policies and Practices,
  39. (2006). Crime Victims: Theory, Policy and Practice,
  40. (2001). Crime, Policing and Justice: The Experience of Ethnic Minorities - Findings from the 2000 British Crime Survey', Home Office Research Study 223, London: Home Office.
  41. (1999). Crime, Risk and Governance in a Southern English Village'
  42. (2004). Criminological Research: Understanding Qualitative Methods,
  43. (1999). De Profundis: Criminology at the Water's Edge'
  44. (1998). Delivering Multi-Agency Partnerships in Community Safety',
  45. (1992). Deprivation and Lifestyles in Rural Wales',
  46. (2000). Designing Samples'
  47. (1995). Discourses of Community in Criminal Justice',
  48. (1997). Endangering the Sacred: Nomads, Youth Cultures and the English Countryside'
  49. (2004). Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
  50. (1994). Environmental Criminology'
  51. (1996). Ethnic Minorities, Victimisation and Racial Harassment',
  52. (1998). Ethnic Politics and the Conservatives in the Post-Thatcher Era'
  53. (1997). Ethnicity and the Rural Environment,
  54. (2004). Ethnicity, Victimisation and Worry About Crime: Findings from the 2001/02 and 2002/03 British Crime Surveys', Home Office Research Study No. 237, London: Home Office.
  55. (2003). Examining the Success of the British National Party,
  56. (2001). Exemplar: The Environmental Concerns of Disadvantaged Groups',
  57. (2007). Far Right to Fight Record Number of Council Seats',
  58. (1988). Focus Groups as Qualitative Research,
  59. (2001). Focus Groups',
  60. (2005). From a Rural View, It is Too Easy to Blame Those with Darker Skins', The Times,
  61. (1997). From the Power of Topography to the Topography of Power: A Discourse on Strange Ruralities'
  62. (2002). From Voluntary to Statutory Status: Reflecting on the Experience of Three Partnerships Established under the Crime and Disorder Act
  63. (2000). Gender, 'Race' and Power in the Research Process: South Asian Women in East London',
  64. (1998). Getting the Grease to the Squeak: Research Lessons for Crime Prevention', Crime Detection and Prevention Series No. 85, London: Home Office.
  65. (2004). Global Villagers',
  66. (2005). Gypsy Groups Report the Sun to the Police',
  67. (1997). Gypsy Politics and Traveller Identity,
  68. (2003). Have You Been Diversified Yet? Developments
  69. (2002). Having a Say: Quality ofLife Issuesfor North Wanvickshire's Black and Minority Ethnic Communities, Warwickshire: Warwickshire County Council.
  70. (2006). Hearing Lost Voices: Issues in Researching 'Hidden' Minority Ethnic Communities',
  71. (1997). Heartlands or Neglected Geographies? Liminality, Power and the Hyperreal Rural',
  72. (1997). Hidden from View: Poverty and Marginalisation in Rural Britain',
  73. (2007). Hogg (eds) Crime in Rural Australia, Annandale, The Federation Press,
  74. (2005). Howard Lashes Out at Gypsy 'Squatters',
  75. (1986). In Search of the Community in the Changing Countryside',
  76. (1993). In the Sticks: Cultural Identity in a Rural Police Force,
  77. (2005). Inappropriate and Incongruous': Opposition to Asylum Centres in the English Countryside',
  78. (1998). Inside Looking Out; Outside Looking In. Different Experiences of Cultural Competence in Rural Lifestyles',
  79. (2007). Integrationism: The Politics of Anti-Muslim Racism',
  80. (1992). Intimations ofPostmodernity,
  81. (2005). Intolerant Britain? Hate, Citizenship and Difference,
  82. (1993). Introduction Part Two: The Place of Politics'
  83. (2003). Introduction: The Discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research'
  84. (1997). It Doesn't Happen Here?, Somerset: Somerset Equality Forum.
  85. (2006). It Goes Without Saying (Well, Sometimes)': Racism, Whiteness and Identity in Northern Ireland',
  86. (1999). Justice by Geography: Realizing Criminal Justice in the Countryside'
  87. (1992). Keep Them In Birmingham: Challenging Racism in South West England, London: Commission for Racial Equality.
  88. (2005). Labour Fuels War on Asylum',
  89. (1996). Languages of Racism Within Contemporary Europe'
  90. (2002). Lay Discourses of the Rural and Stated and Revealed Preferences for Rural Living. Some Evidence of the Existence of a Rural Idyll in the Netherlands',
  91. (1990). Let's Do Away with Rural',
  92. (2007). Locating Rural Crime: The Role of Theory',
  93. (2001). Making Rural Communities Safer: Consultation on Community Safety,
  94. (1999). Mean Streets' Myopia: Challenging Criminology's Boundaries,
  95. (2005). Meet Britain's Only Black Farmer',
  96. (2001). Men in the Valley: Gay Male Life on the Suburban-Rural Fringe',
  97. (1993). Methodological Reflections: An Introduction',
  98. (1998). Middle Class Mobility, Rural Communities and the Politics of Exclusion'
  99. (2002). Minister Stirs Row Over Plans for 15 New Centres',
  100. (2007). MPs Call for Aid to Seaside Towns', BBC News Online, 7 March, http: //news. bbc. co. uk/l/hi/uk politics/6423969. stm BBC (2005) 'Hate Crimes Soar After Bombings',
  101. (2003). Multi-Ethnic Devon: A Rural Handbook - The Report of the Devon and Exeter Racial Equality Council's Rural Outreach Project, Devon: Devon and Exeter Racial Equality Council.
  102. (2002). Muslim Women's Safety Talk and Their Experiences of Victimisation: A Study Exploring Specificity and Difference',
  103. (2003). Muslim's Body Desecrated at Hospital',
  104. (1998). Neglected Gender Dimensions of Rural Social Restructuring', in P. Boyle and K. Halfacree (eds) Migration Into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues,
  105. (1992). Neglected Rural Geographies: A Review',
  106. (1980). New Emphases for Applied Rural Geography',
  107. (2000). New Energies for an Old Idea: Reworking Approaches to 'Community' in Contemporary Rural Studies',
  108. (2003). New Racism Investigation into Police',
  109. (2003). New Storm Hits Police Over 'Racist Culture",
  110. (1995). No Problem? Race Issues in Shropshire, Telford: Race Equality Forum for Telford and Shropshire.
  111. (1994). Not in Norfolk, Norwich: Norwich and Norfolk Racial Equality Council.
  112. (2002). On Becoming a Victim' in C. Hoyle and R. Young (eds) New Visions of Crime Victims,
  113. (2005). Once Upon A Time in the West: Social Deprivation and Rural Youth Crime, London: Howard League for Penal Reform.
  114. (1990). One Nation Under a Groove: the Politics of 'Race' and Racism in Britain',
  115. (1957). originally 1887) Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft,
  116. (2004). Out of Sight, Out of Mind? Towards Developing an Understanding of the Needs of 'Hidden' Minority Ethnic Communities',
  117. (2004). Outsiders Within: The Reality of Rural Racism',
  118. (2003). Partnerships Made Painless: A Joined-Up Guide to Working Together, Lyme Regis:
  119. (1958). Patterns in Criminal Homicide,
  120. (1987). Place and the Politics of Identity,
  121. (2006). Place Matters: Exploring the Distinctiveness of Racism in Rural Wales' in S. Neal and I Agyeman (eds) The New Countryside? Ethnicity, Nation and Exclusion in Contemporary Rural Britain,
  122. (1999). Police and Minority Ethnic Population Relations: Reflections on Research in a Low-Density Area',
  123. (2007). Police Diversity Training: A Silver Bullet Tamished? '
  124. (2002). Policing After Macpherson: Some Experiences of Muslim Police Officers'
  125. (2007). Policing Muslim Communities',
  126. (1999). Policing New Age Travellers: Conflict and Control in the Countryside? '
  127. (2006). Policing Space: Managing New Travellers in England',
  128. (2006). Policing Uncertainty: Countering Terror through Community Intelligence and Democratic Policing',
  129. (2004). Policing, Race and Racism,
  130. (1997). Poor Country: Marginalisation, Poverty and Rurality'
  131. (2006). Pretty Poor',
  132. (2001). Putting Together Ruralities: Towards a Symbolic Analysis of Rurality in the British Mass Media',
  133. (2000). Putting Together Rurality: Media Producers and the Social Construction of the Countryside,
  134. (2000). Qualitative Interviewing'
  135. (2001). Qualitative Interviewing',
  136. (1992). Questionnaire Design, lntervieiving andAttilude Measurement (2 nd edition),
  137. (2001). Questionnaires',
  138. (1993). Race and Racism
  139. (1999). Race Equality Initiatives in South West England'
  140. (2003). Race Row Over Village That Turned its Fire on Gypsies instead of Guy Fawkes',
  141. (2001). Race, Law and the State',
  142. (2006). Race, Terror and Civil Society',
  143. (2003). Racial Harassment and the Process of Victimisation: Conceptual and Methodological Implications for the Local Crime Survey',
  144. (2001). Racism and Anti-Racism in Football, London:
  145. (1993). Racism and Spacism in Britain'
  146. (2005). Racism Drives Man Out of County',
  147. (2002). Racism, Crime -and
  148. (2003). Racism, Ethnicity and Criminology: Developing Minority Perspectives',
  149. (2002). Racism, Ethnicity, Crime and Criminal Justice'
  150. (2003). Racist Harassment Support Projects: Their Role, Impact and Potential,
  151. (2002). Racist Offences: How is the Law Working? ', Home Office Research Study 244, London: Home Office.
  152. (2002). Raiding the Gene Pool: The Social Construction of Mixed Race,
  153. (1996). Reconsidering 'Britishness': The Construction and Significance of National Identity in Twentieth-Century Britain'
  154. (1994). Reconstructing Rurality: Class,
  155. (2004). Reflexivity, Tradition and Racism in a Former Mining Town',
  156. (2003). Refugee Sews Up His Lips, Eyes and Ears',
  157. (1994). Regions, Networks and Fluids: Anaernia and Social Topology',
  158. (2001). Religious Discrimination in England and Wales', Home Office Research Study 220, London: Home Office.
  159. (2006). Remaking English Ruralities: Processes of Belonging and Becoming, Continuity and Change in Racialised Spaces',
  160. (2001). Research and the Policy-Making Process'
  161. (2001). Research, Theory and Method'
  162. (2003). Researching 'Race'and Ethnicity: Methods, Knowledge and Power,
  163. (2004). Researching Race and Racism,
  164. (2000). Researching Victims' in R. King and E. Wincup (eds) Doing Research on Crime andJustice,
  165. (2004). Responding to Rural Racism: Delivering Local Services', in N. Chakraborti and I Garland (eds) Rural Racism,
  166. (2006). Rethinking Rural Race Equality: Early Interventions, Continuity and Changes',
  167. (2007). Revisiting the Rural/Race Debates: A View from the Welsh Countryside',
  168. (1979). Rural Communities: A Social Geography, Newton Abbot: David and Charles.
  169. (2005). Rural Concems',
  170. (2002). Rural Landscapes, Representations and Racism: Examining Multicultural Citizenship and Policy Making in the English Countryside',
  171. (1973). Rural Life: Patterns and Processes,
  172. (1999). Rural Neglect: The Case Against Criminology'
  173. (1976). Rural Planning Problems,
  174. (1978). Rural Settlements,
  175. (1999). Rural Victims of Crime'
  176. (2005). Saltdean Can't Cope': Protests against Asylum-Seekers in an English Seaside Suburb',
  177. (2000). Sampling Strategies in Survey Research'
  178. (1997). Sites of Resistance: Places on the Margin - the Traveller 'Homeplace"
  179. (1986). Situational Crime Control and Rational Choice: A Critique', in K. Heal and G. Laycock (eds) Situational Crime Prevention: From Theory Into Practice,
  180. (1974). Soft City,
  181. (1995). Still No Problem Here,
  182. (2004). Stoned to Death: Why Europe is Starting to Lose its Faith in Islam' The Times,
  183. (2004). Supporting Victims of Rural Racism'
  184. (1995). Talking About Rurality: Social Representations of the Rural as Expressed by Residents of Six English Parishes',
  185. (2006). Tendennis: And Never Darken My Doors Again',
  186. (2000). The
  187. The (2003) The State of the Countryside
  188. The (2004a) The New Definition of Urban and Rural Areas of England and Wales, Cheltenham: The Countryside Agency.
  189. The (2004b) The State of the Countryside 2004, Cheltenham: The Countryside Agency.
  190. (1983). The British Crime Survey: First Report,
  191. (1994). The Countryside Ideal: Anglo-American Images of Landscape,
  192. (2002). The Countryside is a No-Go Area for Black Britons',
  193. (1948). The Criminal and his Victim,
  194. (2002). The Day Cross Country Came to Town',
  195. (1939). The English Tradition in the World,
  196. (2001). The Ethics of Social Research',
  197. (1941). The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius,
  198. (2005). The Needs of Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Craven, Craven: South Craven Community Action.
  199. (2000). The Numbers Game: Quantitative Research on Ethnicity and Criminal Justice'
  200. (2002). The Ox rd Handbook of Criminology (3 Td edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press, rfo pp. 419-456. Asian or Asian British Indian Asian or Asian British Pakistani Asian or Asian British Bangladeshi F1 Any other Asian background (please
  201. (1997). The Perpetrators of Racial Harassment and Racial Violence',
  202. (1998). The Racialisation of Disorder
  203. (2000). The Relationship between Theory and Research in Criminology',
  204. (1995). The Relationships Between Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in Social Policy Research,
  205. (1968). The Rural/Urban Continuum',
  206. (1999). The Stephen Lmvrence Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny, London: Stationery Office.
  207. (2002). The Uses and Limits of Prosecuting Racially Aggravated Offences'
  208. (2004). This is about Real Victims', the Observer,
  209. (2004). Three Rules I Go By in My Ethnographic Research on Race and Racism',
  210. (2005). Tories Announce Crackdown on Travellers',
  211. (2006). Travels With My Beard' BBC News Online, I February http: //news.
  212. (2005). Two-Thirds of Muslims Consider Leaving UK,,
  213. (2003). Under-researched and Overlooked: An Exploration of the Attitudes of Rural Minority Ethnic Communities Towards Crime, Community Safety and the Criminal Justice System',
  214. (1996). Understanding Crime Data,
  215. (1998). Understanding Crime Prevention: Social Control, Risk and Late Modernity,
  216. (2007). Understanding Race and Crime,
  217. (2003). Understanding Racist Violence',
  218. (2004). Unravelling a Stereotype: the Lived Experience of Black and Minority Ethnic People in Rural Wales'
  219. (1980). Urban Incomers and Rural Change',
  220. (1991). Victim Support: Racial Harassment Project Final Report, London: Community Research Advisory Centre, Polytechnic of North London.
  221. (2005). Victims and VictimoloĆ½; y: Research, Policy and Practice,
  222. (2004). Village in Tax Row Over Travellers', The Times,
  223. (2006). Village People: Race, Class, Nation and the Community Spirit',
  224. (2004). Villagers Bristle at Accusations of Rural Prejudice',
  225. (2003). Villagers Bum an Effigy of Gypsies',
  226. (1999). Violent Racism: Victimisation, Policing and Social Context, Oxford:
  227. (2006). Visions of England: New Age Travellers and the Idea of Ethnicity,
  228. (1999). We Can't All Be While! 'Racist Victimisation in the UK,
  229. (2000). West Norfolk Ethnic Minorities Research Report,
  230. (1985). Whither Rural StudiesT,
  231. (1990). Who is Rural? Or How to be Rural: Towards a Sociology of the Rural',
  232. (1996). Women and the Rural Idyll',
  233. (1992). Working With Rural Communities,
  234. (2005). You Really Don't Have to be White',

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.