Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

‘Take off your Mask’: Professional identities and professional development of part-time instructors.

By Hala K. Yaacoub


Questions of identity have been mostly related to war and internal clashes among different sects and parties during a major part of Lebanon’s contemporary history. People were often killed and tortured because of their presumed identities. For more peaceful and educational purposes, this study investigates the professional identities of part-time instructors at one Lebanese HE institution. Three key related questions are addressed. A major question has to do with investigating the professional identities of these instructors, another question deals with what it means to be a part-time instructor and a third with the professional development practices of these part-timers. The two latter objectives have a high impact in crafting the first. A case study was carried out at the American Oriental University (AOU) were 26 part-timers and three full-timers (ex-part-timers) were interviewed. To triangulate the data, four of the participants were asked to participate in diary writing. In addition, document checking was carried out. The part-timers were chosen to represent the wider population of part-timers at the University. Thus, they were chosen to illustrate particular factors characterising part-timers, such as gender, seniority, educational standing, number of work sites and type of part-time choice. Thematic and discourse analysis were used to analyse the data and investigate the different models of those part-timers’ professional identities. Analysis revealed that each part-timer’s professional identity is unique and exists on a continuum ranging from highly democratic to highly managerial. The former is characterised by being democratic, collaborative and based on trust, while the latter is individualistic, competitive and externally-regulated (Day and Sachs, 2004). The neo-liberal forces prevailing in the current educational arena, however, rendered these identities more inclined towards the managerial end (Apple, 2003). Each identity was rendered unique on the continuum not only because of multiplicity of forces impacting it, but rather because of the different sources and intensities of these forces, and thus their unorthodox effects

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2003)The New Social Map,
  2. (2005)Qualitative case studies, in
  3. (2007a) Beirut lifts curfew after clashes,
  4. (2007b) Beirut clashes worry Mid East press, 26 January, at /6301531.stm, retrieved 10/10/2007.
  5. (2007c) Fighting at second Lebanon camp,
  6. (2007d) Aid workers die in Lebanon clash,
  7. (2007f) Timeline: Lebanon- A chronology of key events, 9 October, at, retrieved 10/10/2007.
  8. (eds) Practice and Progress: British Sociology 1950-1980, London: George Allen and Unwin,
  9. (eds) Rethinking Management Information Systems,
  10. (2000). 5b- Financial context against professional development Abdo,
  11. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism,
  12. (2001). A capital theory of school improvement,
  13. (1996). A comparative analysis of the link between flexibility and HRM strategy,
  14. (2001). A Golden Age’: a personal reflection, 1970s and now,
  15. (1999). A Key to the Lebanon,
  16. (2003). A model of strategic change: universities and dynamic capabilities,
  17. (2003). A new approach to professionalizing teaching and accrediting training: the institute for learning and teaching in
  18. (1991). A note on Campbell’s distinction between external and internal validity,
  19. (2002). A systemic approach to professional development: learning as practice,
  20. (2003). Academic Freedom in Arab Univerisities: Understanding, Practices and Discrepancies, Lanham:
  21. (2006). Academic Lives Changed by War,
  22. (2003). Academic roles and relationships
  23. (2001). Academostars are the symptom, what’s the disease?
  24. (2004). Adding value: investigating the discourse of professionalism adopted by vocational teachers in further education colleges,
  25. (2003). Affiliation and change,
  26. (1993). Against group mind: an anarchistic theory of organization,
  27. (2002). An evaluation of the impact of Continuing Professional Development on personal and professional lives,
  28. (1994). An Expanded Sourcebook: Qualitative data analysis, 2nd ed, Thousand Oaks:
  29. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict,
  30. (2005). An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method,
  31. (2002). An Introduction to Qualitative Research, 2nd ed,
  32. (1999). Analyzing qualitative interview data: the discourse analytic method,
  33. (1991). Applications of Case Study Research,
  34. (2000). Arguing for yourself: identity as an organizing principle in teachers’ jobs and lives,
  35. (2002). Assuring quality service in higher education: registration and advising attitudes in a private university in Lebanon,
  36. (2007). At strife-torn campus in Beirut, students return to class amid sectarian tensions,
  37. (1995). Atypical Employment: An International Perspective: Causes, Consequences and Policy,
  38. (2000). Audit Cultures: Anthropological Studies in Accountability, Ethics and Academy,
  39. (2002). Authenticity: reliability, validity and triangulation,
  40. B.J.(2000) Job insecurity, psychological wellbeing and family life,
  41. (1992). Basic Interviewing Skills,
  42. (2005). Becoming a lecturer in further education in England: the construction of professional identity and the role of communities of practice,
  43. (2005). Being a middle leader: exploring professional identities,
  44. (2006). Being reflective: encouraging and teaching reflective practice,
  45. (2002). Between anonymity and celebrity: the zero degrees of professional identity,
  46. (2001). Betwixt and between: classifying identities in Higher Education,
  47. (2006). Bombed Lebanon anchor wins award,
  48. (2004). Bones of contention: using self and story in the quest to professionalize higher education teaching- an interdisciplinary approach,
  49. (1997). Built To Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies,
  50. (2003). Bureau for Education in the Arab States
  51. (2002). Career learning in a changing world: the role of emotions,
  52. (1999). Case study methods,
  53. (1999). Case Study Research in Educational Settings,
  54. (2002). Case study research, in
  55. (1984). Case study,
  56. (2005). Challenging the challenged: Developing an improvement programme for schools facing extremely challenging circumstances,
  57. (1997). Changes in professional development: the personal dimension, in
  58. (1996). Changing employment practices? Teachers and principals discuss some part-time employment arrangements for Alberta teachers,
  59. (2004). Changing the academic subject,
  60. (2002). Changing their minds: exploring the impact of CPD on aspiring head teachers, Unpublished seminar paper,
  61. (2006). Class, capital and education in this Neoliberal/Neoconservative period,
  62. (2003). Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, 2nd ed, Thousand Oaks:
  63. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, Cambridge:
  64. (2001). Community and Identity: experiences and dilemmas of vocational teachers in post-school contexts,
  65. (1997). Confessional pluralism and education: themes from the Lebanese experience,
  66. (2007). Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having and Being, 7th ed, Upper Saddle River,
  67. (2006). Contexts which shape and reshape new teachers’ identities: a multi-perspective study,
  68. (2004). Contingent faculty and the new academic labor system,
  69. (2004). Continuing Professional Development: developing a vision,
  70. (2005). Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis: A Comparative and Critical Introduction,
  71. (2004). CPD for professional renewal: moving beyond knowledge for practice in
  72. (2004). Creating the “Complete Scholar”: academic professionalism
  73. (2001). Creating the Conditions for Teaching and Learning:
  74. (1995). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language,
  75. (2002). Cross-cultural differences in interpreting and doing research
  76. (1996). Culture Politics and Education,
  77. (1992). Cultures of teaching: a focus for change, in
  78. (2005). Current issues in higher education,
  79. (2004). Current science policies and their implications for the formation and maintenance of academic identity,
  80. (1990). Decision taking in the fieldwork process: theoretical sampling and collaborative working,
  81. (1997). Designing Professional Portfolios for Change,
  82. (1999). Developing Teachers: The Challenges of Lifelong Learning,
  83. (2003). Disciplinary Identities,
  84. (2004). Discourse analysis: making complex methodology simple, in
  85. (1992). Discourse Dynamics: Critical Analysis for Social and Individual Psychology,
  86. (2000). Doing Discourse Analysis: Methods for Studying Action in Talk and Texts,
  87. (1997). Doing good and feeling bad: the work of women university teachers,
  88. (2003). Doing identity work: fuzzy boundaries and flexibility in further education,
  89. (1991). Doing Qualitative Research: Circles Within Circles,
  90. (1989). Doing What Comes Naturally: Change, Rhetoric, and the Practice of Theory
  91. (1987). Doing Your Research Project, Milton Keynes:
  92. (2006). Early career teacher professional learning,
  93. (1989). Educating the Reflective Practitioner, 2nd ed,
  94. (2000). Education in Lebanon Today,
  95. (1985). Educational action research: some general concerns and specific quibbles,
  96. (1963). Educational Research: An introduction,
  97. (2000). Emerging policy trends: some implications for continuing professional development,
  98. (2000). Emotion and injustice in the workplace,
  99. (2003). Establishing and Maintaining Peer Support Programs in the Workplace, Ellicot City:
  100. (2002). Ethics of research
  101. (2004). Evaluating CPD: an overview, in
  102. (2000). Evaluating Professional Development,
  103. (2001). Evaluating the impact of Continuing Professional Development: the professional dissertation in lifelong learning,
  104. (1984). Experimental Learning: Experience as a Source of Learning,
  105. for Education and Skills) (2002)14-19: extending opportunities, raising standards. Consultation Document, Cm 5342. Norwich: Stationary Office.
  106. (1976). Foundations of Social Research,
  107. (1998). From Individual to organizational identity
  108. (1996). Gender and teachers’ work,
  109. (1999). Gender policies and conceptions of the modern teacher: women, identity and professionalism,
  110. (2001). Gender theory and research in education: modernist traditions and emerging contemporary themes,
  111. (1997). Gender Transformations,
  112. (2004). Gender,
  113. (2001). Ghosts in the Classroom: Stories of College Adjunct Faculty- and the Price We All Pay,
  114. (2001). Globalisation and education as a commodity, Clarion, at, retrieved 1/12/2008.
  115. (2006). Globalisation and Higher Education. Paper prepared for the OECD/CERI Expert Meeting on
  116. (2005). Graduates’perception of university training in light of occupational attainment and university type: the case of Lebanon,
  117. (1999). Guided learning at work, in
  118. (2004). Helping teachers develop,
  119. (2005). How HR professionals rate ‘Continuing Professional Development’,
  120. (1933). How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process,
  121. (1995). Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities,
  122. (1982). Identifying stress in language teaching,
  123. (2004). Identity and community in the academy: ascription and affiliation,
  124. (2001). Identity and difference: concepts and themes,
  125. (2003). Identity in Democracy,
  126. (2005). Identity learning: the core process of educational change,
  127. (2002). Identity regulation as organizational control: producing the appropriate individual,
  128. (1987). Identity theory: developments and extensions,
  129. (1993). Identity, Authority,
  130. (2003). Improving and effective schools in disadvantaged areas: a summary of research findings,
  131. (2004). In praise of reflective practice,
  132. (1993). Increasing the generalizability of qualitative research,
  133. (1998). Insecurity at work: Is Job insecurity really much worse now than before?
  134. (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications, 3rd ed, Upper Saddle River,
  135. (1998). Internal use of external control and support for quality improvement.
  136. (2003). International Management: Managing across borders and cultures, 2nd ed, Upper Saddle River:
  137. (2001). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analyzing Talk,
  138. (1993). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analyzing Talk, Text and Interaction,
  139. (1991). Interviewing as Qualitative Research,
  140. (2000). Interviewing: A Practical Guide for Students and Professionals,
  141. (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Thousands Oaks:
  142. (2004). Introduction to Education: Teaching in a Diverse Society, 2nd ed, Lanham: Rowman &
  143. (1966). Introduction to Qualitative Research Method,
  144. (2000). Issues and challenges in Continuing Professional Development,
  145. (1999). Joining groups to reduce uncertainty: subjective uncertainty reduction and group identification
  146. (1999). Jonathan Livingstone, I presume: teaching as ‘highflying’ profession,
  147. (2001). Kanoon Al-Daman Al Ijtimayi Maa Al-koaneen W Al-Marasim AlMutamima Lahu, Beirut, Shoufani (The Social Security Code With Its Supporting Rules and Regulations).
  148. (2003). Keeping good teachers: why it matters, what leaders can do,
  149. (2005). Knowledge communities and knowledge collectivities: a typology of knowledge work in groups,
  150. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic,
  151. (2006). Lebanon fears descent into abyss,
  152. (2005). Lebanon fears turbulent times ahead,
  153. (1973). Lebanon in Itself, translated by George Sabra and Revised by Kenneth Mortimer
  154. (2003). Lebanon: A Name Through 4000 Years- Entity and Identity, Beirut: Lebanese Heritage Foundation Publications.
  155. (2000). Lebanon: An Insider’s Guide, Beirut:
  156. (2006). Lebanon: displaced return amidst growing political tension, at , retrieved 15/12/2006. International Labour Office (n.d), Almaraa Al-arabia Fi Alam Al-Amal,
  157. (2005). Lebanon’s only public university mirrors a country still divided,
  158. (2002). Legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, in
  159. (2006). Limits to communities of practice,
  160. (2000). Liquid Modernity,
  161. (2007). Long-term health depends on structural readjustment: growth and accompanying problems,
  162. (1942). Lord Mayor's Luncheon, Mansion House following the victory at El Alameinin North Africa,
  163. (1996). Making Sense of Qualitative Data,
  164. (1990). Management as moral technology: a Luddite analysis,
  165. (2000). Managers and professionals in the contingent workforce,
  166. (1999). Managing Academic Staff in Changing University Systems,
  167. (1996). Managing Generation: How to Bring Out the Best in Young Talents,
  168. (2006). Managing Identity,
  169. (1984). Manpower strategies for flexible organizations,
  170. (2005). Marketing: An Introduction,
  171. (2002). Marketising higher education: neoliberal strategies and counterstrategies,
  172. (2001). Mental models and social representations of hazards: the significance of identity processes,
  173. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age,
  174. (2006). Monitoring and Analysis of Political,
  175. (2000). Narrative Inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research,
  176. (1998). Narrative Research: Reading, Analysis and Interpretation,
  177. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry,
  178. (2002). Neoliberalism and education: the autonomous chooser, Radical Pedagogy, at, retrieved 1/12/2008.
  179. (2001). New hybridities, old concepts: the limits of culture,
  180. (2006). Nizam Al-Haia Al-Academia,
  181. (2004). No discrimination on the basis of irrelevant qualifications,
  182. (2001). Obvious, all too obvious? Methodological issues in using sex/gender as a variable in educational research,
  183. (2003). Occupational attainment through Lebanon’s higher education: using individual, societal, structural and gender factors as predictors,
  184. (1993). Of rules, skills, and examples in moral education,
  185. (2000). Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age, 2nd ed,
  186. (1984). Opening Pandora’s Box: A Sociological Analysis of Scientists’ Discourse, Cambridge:
  187. (2000). Organizational Culture and Identity: Unity and Division at Work
  188. (2006). Organizations, Identities and the Self,
  189. (2001). Part-Time Faculty Issues: Analysis of AB 420 Report and Related Resources,
  190. (2002). Part-time instructors deserve equal pay for equal work, The Chronicle of Higher Education,
  191. (2001). Part-time profs protest intellectual sweatshops,
  192. (2004). Part-time teachers pushing for union, The Enquirer,
  193. (2000). Part-Time Teachers: The AHA Survey, Perspectives,
  194. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behaviour in experimentally created social climates,
  195. (2001). Perceptions of stress at work,
  196. (1999). Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: towards the performative society? Keynote address to the Australian Association of Research
  197. (1993). Planning and Accomplishing School-centered Evaluation,
  198. (2000). Preparation and support of part-time teachers in higher education,
  199. (1989). Primary Teachers Talking: A study of teaching as work,
  200. (1982). Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research,
  201. (1999). Professional development: untangling the influence of work context on teacher learning,
  202. (2001). Professional orientations of secondary school teachers towards their work,
  203. (2004). Professionalism, performativity and empowerment: discourses in the politics, policies and purposes of continuing professional development,
  204. (2006). Protests blow to Beirut economy,
  205. (1999). Provisional selves: experimenting with image and identity in professional adaptation,
  206. (1996). Psychological success and boundaryless career, in
  207. (2001). Psychology and Work,
  208. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd ed,
  209. (1980). Qualitative Evaluation Methods,
  210. (1990). Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools,
  211. (1980). Quality program,
  212. (1994). Questionnaire Design: A Practical Introduction,
  213. (2000). Realism and Educational Research: New Perspectives and Possibilities,
  214. (1993). Recasting the politics of truth: thoughts on class, gender, and the role of intellectuals,
  215. (2000). Reconstructing Teaching: Standards, Performance and Accountability,
  216. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: towards definition and implementation,
  217. (2003). Reflections of a counter-affliliationist,
  218. (2002). Reflective Practice in Educational Research: Developing Advanced Skills,
  219. (2005). Reflective Teaching: Evidence-informed Professional Practice, 2nd ed,
  220. (1992). Reforming Education and Changing Schools: Case Studies in Policy Sociology,
  221. (2001). Replaceable professors: an observation,
  222. (2000). Report shows colleges’ dependence on their parttime instructors,
  223. (2003). Research and teaching: making the link, in
  224. (2000). Research and the development of educational assessment,
  225. (1989). Research and the Teacher,
  226. (1995). Research and the Teacher, 2nd ed,
  227. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd ed, Thousand Oaks:
  228. (2003). Rethinking strategic staff development,
  229. (2000). Sacrifices in greedy universities: are they gendered?
  230. (1992). Sampling in qualitative inquiry,
  231. (2000). Scaling the Tower of Babel: relational differences between identity, image and culture in organizations,
  232. (1989). Self-Therapy, Melbourne: Harper and Collins.
  233. (1999). Shifting identity: New conditions and the transformation of practiceteaching within post-compulsory education,
  234. (1999). Situating academic development in professional work: using peer learning,
  235. (1997). Skill-based full employment: the latest philosopher’s stone,
  236. (1996). Social Identity,
  237. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis,
  238. (1962). Some methodological problems of field studies,
  239. (1993). Strategic assets and organizational rent,
  240. (2001). Stress in teaching: past, present, and future,
  241. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping,
  242. (1995). Student orientation program: a guide for higher education in Lebanon, at, retrieved 10/10/2007.
  243. (1995). Studying the teacher’s life and work,
  244. (2000). Teacher control and the reform of professional development, in H. Altrichter
  245. (1999). Teacher learning and the acquisition of professional knowledge: an examination of research on contemporary professional development,
  246. (1994). Teacher professionalism in local school contexts,
  247. (1991). Teacher stress leading to burnout: Its prevention and cure,
  248. (1983). Teacher stress: exploratory model building,
  249. (1992). Teachers as designers in self-directed professional development,
  250. (1988). Teachers’ perceptions of pupils behaviour problems at a comprehensive school,
  251. (1996). Teachers’ professional lives: aspirations and actualities,
  252. (2003). Teachers’ research and professional development in England: some questions, issues and concerns,
  253. (1974). Teaching Mixed Ability Classes,
  254. (2002). Temporary workers as real options,
  255. (2002). The activist professional and the reinstatement of trust,
  256. (2003). The Activist Teaching Profession, Berkshire:
  257. (2003). The challenge of lifelong learning,
  258. (1996). The Challenge to professionals from the new public management: implications for the teaching profession,
  259. (2004). The changing debate on internationalisation of higher education,
  260. (1976). The Diploma Disease: Education, Qualifications,
  261. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research,
  262. (2001). The educational national choices in Lebanon,
  263. (2000). The educational situation in Lebanon: educational policy and its significance,
  264. (1994). The effects of labour market position, job insecurity, and unemployment on psychological health, in
  265. (1991). The Enlightened Eye,
  266. (1990). The ethics of using video in educational research,
  267. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective
  268. (2002). The influence of research on career development at academic colleges of education in Israel,
  269. (2000). The insecurity thesis in
  270. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures,
  271. (2002). The Managerial School: Post-welfarism and Social Justice in Education,
  272. (2003). The Monkey’s Mask: Identity, Memory, Narrative and Voice,
  273. (2001). The myth of the ‘Golden Age’,
  274. (2002). The New Job Security,
  275. (2006). The personal is political: using daily diaries to examine everyday prejudice-related experiences,
  276. (2000). The Politics of Professionalism,
  277. (1997). The Power of Identity,
  278. (2003). The Present: The Gift That Makes You Happier and More Successful at Work and in Life Today, 2nd ed,
  279. (1991). The problem of speaking for others, Cultural Critique,
  280. (1999). The Quality of Qualitative Research,
  281. (2002). The regional educational technology assistance program: its effects on teaching practices,
  282. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment and professionalism,
  283. (1978). The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods, 2nd ed,
  284. (2004). The role of flexible work in the transition from higher education into the labour market,
  285. (2004). The Social dynamics of changing practice,
  286. (1995). The Sociological Imagination, London:
  287. (2003). The State and the Politics of Knowledge,
  288. (2003). The suppression of ethical dispositions through managerial governmentality: A habitus crisis in Australian higher education,
  289. (2000). The teacher educator as (re) negotiated professional: critical incidents in steering between state and market in Australia,
  290. (2003). The tenured ‘core’ and the tenuous ‘periphery’: the casualisation of academic work in Australian universities,
  291. (1920). The Treasured Writings of Khalil Gibran, translated from Arabic by
  292. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments,
  293. (2004). The World Bank Annual Report
  294. (2002). Theorizing identity, nationality and citizenship,
  295. (1997). Thinking about Women: Sociological Perspectives on
  296. (1995). Thoughtful Teaching,
  297. (1994). Threads of Thinking: Young Children Learning and the Role of Early Education,
  298. (2004). Three axes of merchandisation,
  299. (1990). Toward a categorical imperative for qualitative research,
  300. (1981). Towards a rehabilitation of data,
  301. (1993). Traditions in documentary analysis,
  302. (1997). Training postgraduates for teaching considerations for progaramme planning and development,
  303. (1992). Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning,
  304. (1998). Transforming Qualitative Information: Thematic Analysis and Code Development, Thousand Oaks:
  305. (2005). Treat me as a human being- don’t look at me as a woman’: femininities and professional identities in further education,
  306. (2002). Treating part-time faculty equitably: one college’s solutions,
  307. (1992). Understanding and validity in qualitative research,
  308. (1966). Unobtrusive Measures:
  309. (2003). Variations in teachers’ lives, work and the impact on pupils.
  310. (1995). We Scholars: Changing the Culture of the University, Cambridge:
  311. (1993). Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged,
  312. (2002). What do we mean by educational research? In
  313. (1992). What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry,
  314. (2006). What is mentoring?
  315. (2002). Where do we go from here? Predicting identification among dispersed employees,
  316. (2006). Within and beyond communities of practice: making sense of learning through participation, identity and practice,
  317. (2000). Women crack the glass ceiling, The Times Educational Supplement, at, retrieved 15/12/
  318. (2001). Women leaders in the restructured university,
  319. (1977). Work and Family in the USA: A Critical Review and Agenda for Research and Policy,
  320. (1987). Work, Unemployment and Mental Health,
  321. (2004). Working to live or living to work? Work/life balance early in the career,
  322. (2004). Writing Your Thesis,
  323. (2001). Young workers’ work values, attitudes and behaviours,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.