Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Unhappiness and Involuntary Unemployment: The Case of Ethnic Minority Men in Britain.

By Michael A. Shields and Allan Wailoo


Using data from the Policy Studies Institute’s Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities in 1994, we estimate the determinants of happiness for white, black Caribbean and South Asian men in Britain using ordered probit models. After controlling for personal characteristics, we find that for each group, unemployment is associated with a significantly\ud lower level of happiness compared to employment. Following the methodology of Clark and Oswald (1994), our results suggest that for white and ethnic minority men, unemployment is predominantly involuntary in Britain. Furthermore, we show that having a job per se, rather than the type of job, is the more important determinant of happiness

Topics: Ethnic Minorities, Unemployment, Happiness, Ordered Probit
Publisher: Dept. of Economics, University of Leicester.
Year: 1999
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1996). A paper on unhappiness and unemployment in Germany. doi
  2. (1997). A picture of male and female unemployment among Britain’s ethnic minorities. doi
  3. (1993). Britain’s Ethnic M inorities: An Analysis of the Labour Force Survey. Policy Studies Institute:
  4. (1993). Econometric Analysis. 2nd Edition, M acmillan:
  5. (1993). Estimation and Inference in Econometrics.
  6. (1998). Ethnic minority unemployment and local labour markets doi
  7. (1997). Ethnic variation in commuting propensity and unemployment spells. Discussion paper in Economics, doi
  8. (1997). Ethnicity and M ental Health: Findings from a National Community Survey. Policy Studies Institute,
  9. (1999). Explaining racial variations in unemployment rates
  10. (1997). Happiness and economic performance. doi
  11. (1995). Happiness and unemployment: a panel data analysis for Germany.
  12. (1997). Is utility related to employment status? Employment, unemployment, labour market policies and subjective well-being among Swedish youth. doi
  13. (1996). Job satisfaction in Britain. doi
  14. (1998). M igration, migrants and policy in the United Kingdom. CEPR Discussion Paper,
  15. (1996). Social psychology, unemployment and macroeconomics.Journal of doi
  16. (1998). The earnings of male immigrants in England: evidence from the quarterly LFS. doi
  17. (1978). The effect of Americanisation on the earnings of foreign-born men. doi
  18. (1998). The effects of low-pay and unemployment on psychological wellbeing: a logistic regression approach. doi
  19. (1982). The employment of immigrants in the United States. In doi
  20. (1998). The employment, unemployment and unemployment compensation benefits of immigrants.
  21. (1989). The Psychology of Happiness.Routledge:
  22. (1998). The unemployment experience of male immigrants in England. doi
  23. (1988). Unemployment and mental health: some British studies. doi
  24. (1994). Unhappiness and unemployment. doi
  25. (1998). W ho feels it knows it: work attitudes and excess non-white unemployment doi
  26. (1998). W hy are the unemployed so unhappy? Evidence from panel data.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.