Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Treatment of classroom oral errors : a comparative study between native and non-native speaking teachers

By Goma Ahmad Mosbah


This thesis is a qualitative study of how native and non-native speaking teachers treat classroom oral errors across three lesson types: reading, free activity and grammar in a military school in Saudi Arabia. The general purpose of this thesis is to understand error treatment from both the emic (teachers’ views) and the etic (systematic study) perspectives and to relate these two perspectives to students’ attitudes in order to achieve a holistic understanding of this phenomenon.\ud Ten teachers, divided evenly between native and non-native speakers, teaching reading, free activity and grammar lessons were observed and their lessons recorded. Six teachers were interviewed and a Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to sixty students. A new technique called Digital HyperLinking (DHL) was devised to analyze both classroom observation and research interview data. This technique uses a database programme – Microsoft Access – and a sound editing programme – Sound Forge. This technique lessened the problems associated with transcription: representation, validity and reliability. Each set of data is analyzed separately before a holistic analysis is presented.\ud The findings indicate that the treatment of classroom oral errors is contingent on a host of factors including lesson type, teachers’ views about error treatment, their preferred instructional techniques, learner variables and the teaching context with its organizational culture, course objectives and requirements. Error treatment is a complex process and teachers lack conscious knowledge of the available corrective feedback moves. There are more similarities than differences between native and non-native speaking teachers. In general, teachers’ treatment of classroom oral errors in this study is compatible with the students’ preferences

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2007
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1995). A cross-cultural view of learning styles,
  2. (1977). A descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of learners' errors,
  3. (1991). Adverb placement in second language acquisition: some effects of positive and negative evidence in the classroom, Second Language Research,7(1),133-161.
  4. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge:
  5. (1996). Appropriate Methodology and Social Context, Cambridge:
  6. (1974). Approximative systems of foreign language learners, in
  7. (1990). Aspects of Language Teaching,
  8. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax,
  9. (1989). Attention to form or meaning? Error treatment in the Bangalore Project,
  10. (1983). Attitudes and preferences of ESL students to error correction,
  11. C.(1966) The use of contrastive data in foreign language course development,
  12. C.(1970) Derivational complexity and the order of acquisition in child speech,
  13. (1980). Classroom-centered research: some consumer guidelines, Paper presented at the second Annual TESOL Summer Meeting,
  14. (1978). Cloud-cuckoo-land or feedback as the central component in foreign language teaching,
  15. (1995). COLT: Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching Observation Scheme: Coding Convention and Application,
  16. (1972). Common Errors in Language Learning,
  17. (1982). Competing criteria for error gravity,
  18. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research,
  19. (1987). Conceptual background and utility,
  20. (2004). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in communicative classrooms across instructional settings,
  21. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: negotiation of form in communicative classrooms,
  22. (2006). Corrective feedback in EFL university classrooms: A Case study at an Italian university,
  23. (1984). Corrective feedback in native-nonnative discourse,
  24. (1990). Cultural and educational expectations in the language Classroom, In
  25. (1981). Cybernetics: a model for feedback in the ESL classroom,
  26. (1980). Developmental and transfer errors: their common bases and possibly differential effects on subsequent learning,
  27. (1986). Differential effects of corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker conversation,
  28. (2004). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction,
  29. (1990). Displacing the native speaker: expertise, affiliation and inheritance,
  30. (2002). Doing and Writing Qualitative Research,
  31. (1987). Doing Your Research Project: A Guide For First Time Researchers in Education and Science, Milton Keynes:
  32. (1994). Down the garden path: another look at the role of negative feedback,
  33. (1988). Down the garden path: inducing and correcting overgeneralization errors in Foreign Language Classroom,
  34. (1970). Educational Research Methods,
  35. (1992). ELT: the native speaker‘s burden ,
  36. (1974). Error analysis and second language strategies,
  37. (1974). Error Analysis,
  38. (1978). Error correction in foreign language teaching: Recent theory, research and practice,
  39. (1993). Error Gravity and error hierarchies,
  40. (1986). Error Perceptions of native-speaking and non-native-speaking teachers of ESL,
  41. (1980). Error types in adult English as a second language, in Kellerman
  42. (1991). Error: some problems of definition, identification, and distinction,
  43. (1974). Errors and strategies in child second language acquisition,
  44. (1998). Errors in Language Learning and Use: Exploring Error Analysis,
  45. (1978). Errors of English speakers of German as perceived and evaluated by German natives,
  46. (1982). Errors, interaction and correction: a study of native-nonnative conversations,
  47. (1979). ESL methodology and student language learning in bilingual elementary schools,
  48. (1982). Ethnographic Monitoring and Classroom Research,
  49. (1982). Ethnography in education: Defining the essentials, in
  50. (1988). Ethnography in ESL: Defining the Essentials,
  51. (2000). Ethnography,
  52. (2002). Ethnography: Principles in Practice, Routledge, London and
  53. (1986). Ethnography: The holistic approach to understanding schooling,
  54. (1993). Explicit and implicit negative feedback: an empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations,
  55. (2006). Exploring the relationship between characteristics of recasts and learner uptake,
  56. (1969). Feedback and Human Behaviour,
  57. (1989). Feedback for language transfer errors: the garden path technique,
  58. (1986). Feedback to first language learners: the role of repetitions and clarification questions,
  59. (1991). Fluency and Accuracy: Toward Balance
  60. (1990). Focus on form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching: Effects on second language learning,
  61. (1996). Focus on form in the foreign language classroom: students' and teachers' views on error correction and the role of grammar,
  62. (1996). Focus on the Language Classroom: An Introduction to Classroom Research for Language Teachers, Cambridge:
  63. (1983). Foreign language learning and the treatment of spoken errors,
  64. (2002). Gender effect on error treatment in university ESL classrooms,
  65. (1974). Global and Local Mistakes, in
  66. (1986). Helping language learners think about learning,
  67. (1986). Helping learners adapt to unfamiliar methods,
  68. (1996). How culturally appropriate is the communicative approach?
  69. (1974). Idiosyncratic dialects and error analysis, in
  70. (1974). Imitation and correction in foreign language learning,
  71. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar,
  72. (2006). Interactional feedback and instructional counterbalance,
  73. (1998). Interviewing as Qualitative Research, Teachers College,
  74. (1994). Interviewing: The art of science,
  75. (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing,
  76. (1977). Judgments of error gravities,
  77. (1960). Language and Language Learning,
  78. (1986). Learning How to Ask: A Sociolinguistic Appraisal of the Role of the Interview in Social Science Research, Cambridge:
  79. (1957). Linguistics Across Cultures,
  80. (1985). Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics,
  81. (1990). Managing change in Indonesian high schools,
  82. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, Cambridge:
  83. (1989). Mistakes and Correction,
  84. (2000). Native and non-native: what can they offer? Lessons from team-teaching
  85. (1982). Native speaker judgment and the evaluation of errors in
  86. (1982). Native speaker judgments of second-language learners' efforts at communication: a review,
  87. (1980). Native speaker reaction to instructor-identified student second language errors,
  88. (1980). Native speaker reactions to learners' spoken interlanguage,
  89. (1988). Native Speakers and Models,
  90. (1981). Native-speaker evaluation of student composition errors ,
  91. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development,
  92. (2005). Negative input for grammatical errors: effects after a lag of 12 weeks.
  93. (2002). Negotiation moves and recasts in relation to error types and learner repair in the foreign language classroom,
  94. (2001). Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms,
  95. (1974). New frontiers in second language learning,
  96. (2005). Non-Native Language Teacher, Perception, Challenges and Contribution to the profession,
  97. (1988). Observation in the Language Classroom,
  98. (1980). On acquisition order,
  99. (2006). One size fits all?: recasts, prompts,
  100. (1987). Parental responses to grammatical and ungrammatical child utterances,
  101. (2002). Patterns of corrective feedback and uptake in an adult ESL classroom,
  102. (1953). Personality Tests and Assessments,
  103. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition,
  104. (1975). Problems in the study of the language teachers‘ treatment of learners errors,
  105. (1996). Qualitative Data Analysis : A User-friendly Guide for Social Scientists,
  106. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis,
  107. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods,
  108. (1996). Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach,
  109. (1998). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement, Pinter: London and Washington.
  110. (1995). Re-envisioning the second language classroom: a Vygotskyan approach,
  111. (1998). Recasts, repetition, and ambiguity in L2 classroom discourse,
  112. (2006). Reexamining the role of recasts in second language acquisition,
  113. (1994). Replicate Tomasellow‘s and Herron‘s study
  114. (1998). Research Methods in Education, Cambridge:
  115. (1992). Research Methods in Language Learning, Cambridge:
  116. (1996). Researching the Art of Teaching: Ethnography for Educational Use,
  117. (2002). Rethinking the role of corrective feedback in communicative language teaching,
  118. (1976). Rule fossilization: a tentative model,
  119. (1988). Second Language Classroom: Research on Teaching and Learning, Cambridge:
  120. (1987). Second Language Pedagogy,
  121. (1997). SLA Research and Language Teaching,
  122. (1997). Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process,
  123. (1970). Sociological work: Method and substance,
  124. (1987). Some observation from the perspective of the rare event cognitive comparison theory of language acquisition,
  125. (1977). Some reservations concerning error analysis,
  126. (1977). Teacher feedback on learner error: Mapping conditions,
  127. (1976). Teachers' and students' preferences for correction of classroom errors
  128. (1975). Teachers' reacting moves following errors made by pupils in postprimary English as a second language classes in Israel,
  129. (1986). Teachers‘ priorities in correcting learners‘ errors in French immersion classes,
  130. (1945). Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language, Ann Arbor:
  131. (1978). Teaching English as communication,
  132. (1988). The Classroom and the Language Learner,
  133. (1997). The Contrast Theory of negative input,
  134. (1998). The culture the learner brings: a bridge or a barrier? in
  135. (1990). The Development of Second Language Proficiency, Cambridge:
  136. (1972). The diagnosis and analysis of errors- some insights from linguistics,
  137. (1993). The effect of error correction on L2 grammar knowledge and oral proficiency,
  138. (2006). The effects of explicit feedback on the development of pragmatic proficiency,
  139. (1993). The English language and its teachers: thoughts past, present, and future,
  140. (1981). The hand signal system,
  141. (1967). The importance of learner‘s errors,
  142. (1988). The issue of negative evidence: adult responses to children's language errors,
  143. (1985). The Native Speaker is Dead!,
  144. (1983). The Natural Approach,
  145. (1994). The ownership of English,
  146. (1997). The Politics of transcription: transcribing talk: issues of representation,
  147. (1977). The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation,
  148. (1996). The problems with statistics,
  149. (2005). The Prompt Hypothesis: Clarification requests as corrective input for grammatical errors,
  150. (1964). The Psychologist and the Foreign Language Teacher,
  151. (1987). The role of error correction in second language teaching,
  152. (1992). The role of feedback in adult second language acquisition: error correction and morphological generalizations,
  153. (1997). The Study of Second Language Acquisition,
  154. (1977). The treatment of error in oral work,
  155. (1982). The treatment of learners' errors by novice EFL teachers,
  156. (1982). The use of ethnographic techniques in educational research,
  157. (1984). The zone of proximal development: some conceptual issues,
  158. (1986). Thought and Language,
  159. (1997). Thought and Mind,
  160. (1992). Tissue rejection and informal orders in ELT Projects: Collecting the right information,
  161. (1981). Toward a rare even cognitive comparison theory of syntax acquisition,
  162. (1975). Towards an Analysis of Discourse,
  163. (1989). Understanding Language Classroom,
  164. (1997). Understanding Research in Second Language Learning, Cambridge:
  165. (1986). Understanding Second Language Acquisition,
  166. (1957). Verbal Behaviour,
  167. (1974). Ways of Speaking,
  168. (1999). What implications does English globalization have for treatment of students errors,
  169. (1999). What's wrong with oral grammar correction,
  170. (1992). World Englishes: approaches, issues and resources,
  171. (1974). You can't learn without goofing: an analysis of children's second language errors,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.