Location of Repository

The Impact on Language Learning of Lebanese Students’ Attitude towards English in the Context of Globalization and Anti-Americanism.

By Zane Siraj Sinno


Second language acquisition (SLA) is embedded in a complex network of influential\ud variables, among which is the socio-political context. Indeed, researchers agree that attitudes and motivation are significant in determining linguistic proficiency and achievement (Gardner, 1985, 2001, 2004; Oxford and Shearin, 1994; Oxford, 1996; Dörnyei, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003).\ud The purpose of this study was to investigate whether negative attitudes existed towards\ud English as an international language in the context of globalization and anti-\ud Americanism, and if so, whether they interfered with second language acquisition.\ud Data was collected through qualitative research methods, namely individual and group\ud interviews and in class writing assignments.\ud The students considered English indispensable for employment and career advancement (extrinsic motivation or instrumental motivation). This outweighed negative attitudes associated with the target language community (TLC) and the power of the target language (TL). The study signals a parallel duality where participants acknowledged the significance of the English language and wanted to learn it even though they were aware of political discrimination against Arabs and the linguistic power exerted by the dominant\ud powers.\ud Even though attitudes towards the L2 and the TLC impact language acquisition, it seems\ud that in this sample, they did not have a direct effect on L2 motivation as displayed in the willingness to use the language or to learn it.\ud Most importantly, my study identifies a desire to integrate, not to a specific TLC but to a global community and workplace to which the English language provided access. One reason fueling this integrative motivation is the conflict zone in which the participants live. The socio-political as well as economic context and its concomitant Arab identity inferiority complex encourage students to seek to escape from the limitations of the local workplace and context

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2008
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/4234

Suggested articles



  1. (2007). 13). [Television broadcast]. Lebanon: Future TV.
  2. (2008). 5). Asia Online to Double the Size of the Thai-Language Internet: World's Largest Literacy Project leverages Translation Platform that Learns From Humans (Press Release).
  3. (2007). 8). Lebanon war image causes controversy.
  4. (1988). A critical appraisal of Gardner’s socio-psychological theory of secondlanguage (l2) learning.
  5. A further comment on language proficiency as sources of variance in self –reported affective variables.
  6. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning.
  7. (1970). A study of student attitudes and motivation in a collegiate French course using programmed language instruction.
  8. (2001). A study of unsuccessful language learners in
  9. (1989). Alien winds: the re-education of America’s Indochinese refugees.
  10. (1980). An analysis of the relationship between language attitudes and English attainment of secondary school students in Hong Kong.
  11. (1991). An instrumental motivation in language study: Who says it isn’t effective?
  12. (2005). An introduction to discourse analysis: theory and method (2nd ed.).
  13. (1950). Attitude toward Welsh as a second language: A preliminary investigation.
  14. (1997). Attitudes and attained proficiency in ESL: A sociolinguistic study of native speakers of Chinese in the United States.
  15. (1993). Attitudes and cultural background and their relationship to reading comprehension in L2. PhD thesis.
  16. (1992). Attitudes and language.
  17. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research and applications.
  18. (1969). Attitudinal aspects of second language learning.
  19. (2001). Beyond discipline? Globalization and the future of English PMLA, 116(1), Special Topic: Globalizing Literary Studies,
  20. (1989). Bilingual education: history, politics, and theory and practice.
  21. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success.
  22. (1990). Conceptualizing motivation in second language learning.
  23. (1989). Conditions for second language learning.
  24. (1988). Covert policy in the United States refugee program in Southeast Asia.
  25. Critical academic writing. Ann Arbor:
  26. (1995). Critical discourse analysis.
  27. (1999). Critical language awareness: Key principles for a course in critical reading.
  28. (1998). Current issues in English language methodology. Castello de la Plana, Spain: Publications de la Universitat Jaume I.
  29. (1999). Declining motivation after the transition to middle school: Schools can make a difference.
  30. (2007). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved
  31. (2004). Do our kids have attitude? A closer look at foreign language classrooms in the United States. Georgia State Working Papers in Applied Linguistics 1(1). Retrieved
  32. (1996). Druze minority students learning Hebrew in Israel: The relationship of attitudes, cultural background, and interest of material to reading comprehension in a second language.
  33. (2001). Editorial Introduction.
  34. (2006). Education reform in societies in transition: International perspectives. Rotterdam / Taipei:
  35. (1990). Educational psychology: A realistic approach.
  36. (2006). Educational reform at a time of change: The case of Lebanon. In
  37. (1998). Effective motivational thinking: A cognitive theoretical approach to the study of language learning motivation.
  38. (2000). Effects of media input on incidental learning of English and on linguistic attitudes among Finland-Swedish high-school students.
  39. (1997). Ego and reality in psychoanalytic theory.
  40. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge:
  41. (2001). English for globalisation or for the world’s people?
  42. (2000). English in Brazil: Functions and attitudes.
  43. (2000). English in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
  44. (1995). English in the world / the world in English,
  45. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of ‘English as a foreign language. London: The British
  46. (2000). Existence of integrative motivation in Asian EFL setting.
  47. (2003). Forecasting the fate of languages. In
  48. (1996). Foreign language motivation: Internal structure and external connections. In
  49. (2007). from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6385969.stm
  50. (2007). from http://www.clubofrome.at/news/sup2006/dl_hassan.pdf
  51. (2007). from http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19930601faessay5188/samuel-p-huntington/the-clash-ofcivilizations.html
  52. (2008). from http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/november/internetLanguages.htm
  53. (1990). Georgetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics.
  54. (2003). Global differences and local discourses in Cosmopolitan.
  55. (2002). Globalization and the teaching of ‘communication skills’.
  56. (1992). Globalization: Social theory and global culture.
  57. (2000). Good to talk? London: Sage Publication.
  58. (2001). Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination.
  59. (2006). HRH Prince
  60. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In
  61. (1988). In Search of Subjectivity―One’s own.
  62. (2001). Individual differences in second language acquisition: attitudes, learner subjectivity, and L2 pragmatic norms.
  63. (2002). Individual differences in second language acquisition.
  64. (1991). Individual differences in second language learning.
  65. (1989). Individual differences in second-language learning.
  66. (2004). Integrative motivation in a globalizing world.
  67. (2004). Integrative motivation: Changes during a year-long intermediate level language course.
  68. (1978). Intelligence and language proficiency as sources of variance in self –reported affective variables.
  69. (2008). Internet World Stats
  70. (2007). Is the official success rate in Brevet exams real?
  71. (2007). Islamophobia: Making Muslims the enemy.
  72. (2000). Issues in modern foreign language teaching. London: Routledge Falmer.
  73. (1996). Jihad vs Mcworld: How globalization and tribalism are reshaping the world.
  74. (2001). Language and the Internet. Port Chester:
  75. (2002). Language attrition: tests, self-assessments, and perceptions. In
  76. (1995). Language death, language genesis, and world history.
  77. (2000). Language death. Cambridge and New York:
  78. (1986). Language learning motivation: A descriptive and causal analysis.
  79. (1996). Language learning strategies around the world: Crosscultural perspectives.
  80. (1994). Language motivation in a new key. In
  81. (2000). Language motivation revisited.
  82. (1982). Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social change. Indiana:
  83. (1996). Le francais et l’anglais langues etrangeres au Liban : analyse de leurs statuts actuel [French and English as foreign languages in Lebanon : Anlaysis of their actual status]. Unpublished doctoral thesis. France: Univeriste de
  84. (1996). Learner autonomy: The role of motivation.
  85. (1991). Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy.
  86. (1999). Lebanon’s language in education policies: From bilingualism to trilingualism.
  87. (1996). Lingua Franca English and conversation analysis.
  88. (1992). Linguistic imperialism.
  89. (2000). Local histories/ global designs: Coloniality, subalteran knowledges, and border thinking.
  90. (1990). M & Ms for the language classroom? Another look at motivation.
  91. (1993). Methods and practices in periphery classrooms. In
  92. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization.
  93. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom.
  94. (2001). Motivation and second language acquisition
  95. (2001). Motivation and second language acquisition. In
  96. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation.
  97. (2002). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research and Applications. Upper Saddle River NJ:
  98. (1996). Motivation in education: theory, research, and applications. Englewood Cliffs,
  99. (1994). Motivation, self-confidence, and croupcohesion in the foreign language classroom.
  100. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda,
  101. (2001). Motivational characteristics of learning different target languages: Results of a nationwide survey in
  102. Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge:
  103. (1982). Movements and agencies of language spread: Wales and the soviet union compared. In
  104. (1996). Moving language learning motivation to a larger platform for theory and practice. In R.
  105. (2000). New Labour,
  106. (1996). New pathways of language learning motivation. In
  107. (2001). Notions of self in foreign language learning: a qualitative analysis. In
  108. (1998). On endangered languages and the importance of linguistic diversity
  109. (1992). On endangered languages and the safeguarding of diversity.
  110. (1989). Parliamo Itangliano.
  111. (2002). Portraits of the L2 user.
  112. (1995). Power and in equality in language education. Cambridge:
  113. (1974). Predicting success in learning a second language.
  114. Principles and practice in second language acquisition.
  115. (1963). Psychological approaches to the study of language Part II: On second language and bilingualism.
  116. (1997). Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge:
  117. (1995). Pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools: A Foucauldian analysis of discourses. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis,
  118. (2003). Research report: Attitudes towards English in the Basque autonomous community.
  119. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching.
  120. (1996). Rethinking Language and gender research.
  121. (1999). Runaway world: How globalization is reshaping our lives. London :
  122. (1978). Second language acquisition and foreign language teaching.
  123. (1989). Second language learning in an immersion programme: Factors influencing acquisition and retention.
  124. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action.
  125. (1985). Social Psychology and social language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation.
  126. (2001). Social Research: Issues, methods and process,
  127. Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: Results of a longitudinal nationwide survey.
  128. (2005). Statistical Report for the Academic year
  129. (1971). Student attitudes in the basic French courses at the
  130. (1993). Summer93). The clash of civilizations?
  131. Teaching and Researching Motivation.
  132. (2002). Teaching English as an international language.
  133. (1972). Testing communicative competence.
  134. (1978). The acculturation model for second language acquisition in R.C. Gingras (Ed.). Shams
  135. (1986). The Alchemy of English: the spread, functions, and models of nonnative Englishes.
  136. (2006). The American Democracy’ Israeli War Crimes in Lebanon. Documentary. Retrieved November 27 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcVCjifXyKM The Random House Unabridged Dictionary
  137. (2000). The Changing Global Economy and the Future of English Teaching.
  138. (2004). The complexity of the learning and teaching of EFL.
  139. (1990). The conditions of postmodernity. Cambridge:
  140. (1994). The cultural politics of English as an international language. London &
  141. (1986). The effect of context on the composition and role of orientations in second language acquisition.
  142. (1997). The Forum: EIL, ESL, EFL: global issues and local interests.
  143. (1997). The future of English: A guide to forecasting the popularity of English in the 21st century. London: The British Council.
  144. (2001). The globalisation of (educational) language rights.
  145. (2006). The humanitarian challenge in Lebanon. Retrieved
  146. (1988). The ideology of English: French perceptions of English as a world language.
  147. (1996). The influence of gender and motivation on EFL learning strategy use in
  148. (2003). The international standing of the English language, in
  149. (1996). The language –gender interface: Challenging co-option. In
  150. (1996). The McDonalization Thesis.
  151. (2002). The motivational basis of language learning tasks. In
  152. (1994). The ownership of English.
  153. (1975). The political sociology of the English language. The Hague/Paris:
  154. (2002). The psychology of globalization.
  155. (2003). The search for a global linguistic strategy. In
  156. (1994). The study of second language acquisition.
  157. (1994). The Subtle Effects of Language Anxiety on Cognitive Processing in the Second Language.
  158. (1992). The tapestry of language learning: the individual in the communicative classroom.
  159. (1980). The true words: A transformational perspective.
  160. (1992). The world languages in crisis.
  161. (1983). Theory and resistance in education: A pedagogy for the opposition. South
  162. (1996). Toward understanding the second language learning of Arab students in Israel and Canada: The relationship of attitudes and cultural background to reading comprehension.
  163. (2003). Towards a scientific geostrategy for English. In
  164. (1989). Understanding popular culture.
  165. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition.
  166. (2002). University students’ perception of the ethnolinguistic vitality of Arabic, English, and French.
  167. (2004). Viewpoint: The future of language.
  168. (1999). Voices in global English: Unheard chords in crystal loud and clear.
  169. (1994). Where are we with language learning motivation?
  170. (2000). Which language? – An embarrassment of choice. In
  171. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: the Japanese EFL context.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.