Location of Repository

Sex differences related to achievement in mathematics.

By Susan J. Cavendish

Abstract

The study investigated biological, cognitive, and social factors relating to the under-achievement of girls compared to boys in mathematics. The phenomenon was investigated of girls being superior to boys in mathematics\ud tests at the primary age but boys being superior to girls from adolescence.\ud Historical considerations appear to have contributed to the delayed\ud provision of mathematics education for girls. Gender differences in tests\ud were found in a few specific classes only and were not the general case.\ud The analysis of errors found that language determines the level of success\ud in mathematics during the early years. Other social factors such as parent\ud attitudes and teacher confidence build up during the primary years to\ud manifest from about the age of eleven and work to the detriment of girls.\ud Secondary age boys demonstrated more positive attitudes than girls, but\ud girls did not demonstrate negative attitudes.\ud The period between the second and fourth year juniors proved to be of\ud significant importance In the development of mathematical achievement.\ud During this period a change occurred in the types of test errors and\ud omissions, the level of career aspirations, the number of male teachers\ud experienced, the extent of whole class teaching, and pupil attitude scores.\ud Teachers did not give more attention to boys compared to girls. A method of\ud attitude assessment was trialled. Results suggested that most pupils viewed\ud the teacher as a disciplinarian even though few discipline related\ud interactions were observed in the classroom study. Male teachers appeared\ud confident in mathematics, whereas females had less positive attitudes.\ud Study of the classroom suggested that the curriculum area being taught\ud influenced the teaching style employed which in turn influenced pupil\ud behaviour. Differences within each curriculum area would allow for\ud classroom factors to have a differential effect on girls and boys in\ud mathematics and not other curriculum areas

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 1988
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/4211

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1864), Report of H.M. Commissioners to inquire into the Revenues and Management of Certain Colleges and Schools: Volume II.
  2. (1868), Report on Endowed Grammar Schools.
  3. (1895), Royal Commission on Secondary Education Report, Volume I.
  4. (1979). A follow-up study of reading attainment in a sample of 11 year old disadvantaged children,
  5. (1969). A Longitudinal Study of the Relationships between Personality Variables and some Measures of Academic Attainment.
  6. (1959). A method f or determining types of self-esteem,
  7. (1975). A multi-dimensional scheme for coding and interpreting perceived causality for success and failure events: The coding scheme of perceived causality
  8. (1972). A Pattern of Disadvantage.
  9. (1969). A Pilot Study to Assess the Academic Progress of Disadvantaged First Graders Assigned to Class by Sex and Taught by a Teacher of the Same Sex. Dissertation,
  10. (1983). A Review of Research
  11. (1973). A Student's Guide to the Development of Education in England and Wales.
  12. (1958). A technique for measuring classroom behaviour,
  13. (1966). A Theory of Achievement Motivation.
  14. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences,
  15. (1973). Ability and creativity in uiatheniatics,
  16. (1977). Ability Grouping - the Banbury Enquiry.
  17. (1974). Academic Aspects of Pupils' Choice of Advanced Level Studies, with Particular Reference to Specialisation and the Choice of Mathematics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, university of Newcastleupon-Tyne.
  18. (1980). Achievement in and Attitude Toward High School Mathematics with Respect to Sex and Soda-economic Status.
  19. (1977). Achievement motivation for males and females as a determinant of attributions for success and failure, x.
  20. (1971). Adolescent attitudes toward mathematics,
  21. (1966). Age peculiarities in the development of mathematical abilities in students,
  22. (1953). al (eds)The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 6.
  23. (1980). Alice and her receding vision of a perce in the success tree,
  24. (1968). All Our Future.
  25. (1978). All Things Bright
  26. (1961). An analysis of the factorial dimension of the achievement motivation construct,
  27. (1975). An Assessment of Factors Affecting Female Participants In
  28. (1980). An Initial Investigation into the Strategies used by Girls and Boys when Initiating Exchanges with the Teacher. Paper presented at BERA annual conference,
  29. (1968). An Introduction to Human Development.
  30. (1970). An investigation into the relationships between performance and neuroticism,
  31. (1975). An Investigation of the Attitudes of Elementary School Teachers toward Sex-Role Behaviours of Elementary School Children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  32. (1980). An Investigation of the Differential Effects of Male and Female Teachers on Primary Pupils Mathematics and Reading Achievement.
  33. (1978). An observational Study of the Classroom Interactions of Elementary and High School Male and Female Teachers with their Male and Female students in Mathematics and English Classes. Doctoral dissertation,
  34. (1969). An unexpected relationship between failure and subsequent mathematics learning,
  35. (1970). Analyzing Teaching Behaviour.
  36. (1969). and sex differences in children's sex-role standards about achievement,
  37. (1973). Are children's attitudes towards learning arithmetic really important?
  38. (1979). Aspects of Secondary Education in England.
  39. (1964). Attainment and tue School Environment.
  40. (1976). Attitudes of teacher-training students to mathematicians,
  41. (1969). Attitudes to junior school activities,
  42. (1974). Attitudes to school subjects; a repertory grid technique,
  43. (1981). Attribution theory and achievement in mathematics.
  44. (1969). Behavioural expresion of teachers' attitudes towards elementary school students,
  45. (1983). Beyond the Wendy House: Sex Role Stereotyping
  46. (1975). Byseuck Personality Questionnaire (Junior and Adult). Hodder and Stoughton.
  47. (1974). Case Studies of Children's Conceptions of Mathematics. Unpublished doctoral thesis,
  48. (1960). Characteristics of Teachers: their Description, Comparison, and ApDraisal.
  49. (1981). Child-methods in secondary mathematics,
  50. (1967). Children and their Primary Schools.
  51. (1979). Children in Classrooms: An Investigation of Person-Environment Interaction.
  52. (1981). Children's achievement at school-entry age as a function of mother's and father's teaching sets,
  53. (1985). Children's causal attributions for success and failure in achievement settings: a ineta-analysis,
  54. (1978). Children's Minds. Groom Helm.
  55. (1960). Children's understanding of number and related concepts,
  56. (1971). Class, Codes and Control,
  57. (1973). Classroom environmental variables,
  58. (1973). Classrooms Observed. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  59. (1969). Clustan 1A: User Manual.
  60. (1980). Cluster Analysis, 2nd Edition,
  61. (1983). Cluster Analysis.
  62. (1977). Cluster analysis. In:
  63. (1972). Cojnments on D.11. Broverinan et al: Roles of activation and inhibition ii sex differences in cognitive abilities,
  64. (1960). Conceptual formulation for some research on children's achievement development,
  65. (1973). Contemporary models of teaching.
  66. (1980). Correlates and predictors of women's mathematics participation,
  67. (1970). Creative types of mathematics,
  68. (1979). CrItical Variables in Mathematics Education.
  69. (1975). Curricular differences for boys and girls In mixed and singlesex schools,
  70. (1979). Dealing with Survey Data,
  71. (1975). Decision rules for teaching strategies in primary schools: Personality -treatment interactions,
  72. (1979). Decomposition and all that rot,
  73. (1977). Degrees of Excellence: the Academic Achievement Game. Hodder and Stoughton.
  74. (1984). Determinants of student selfconcept: is it better to be a relatively large fish in a small pond even if you don't learn to swim as well?
  75. (1979). Development of perception of own attainment and causal attributions for success and failure in reading,
  76. (1930). Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching In Arithmetic.
  77. (1967). Differential factor structures in mathematical ability,
  78. (1968). Discovery and expository task presentation in elementary mathematics,
  79. (1981). Discrimination
  80. (1977). Distribution problems in clustering. In:
  81. (1975). Do teachers bias children's learning?,
  82. (1975). Don't Just mark the answer - have a look at the method,
  83. (1964). Education and Environment.
  84. (1978). Education and the sex discrimination act, Educational Research.
  85. (1965). Education and the Urban Child.
  86. (1985). Educational achievement in the infant school: the influence of ethnic origin, gender and home on entry skills,
  87. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View.
  88. (1964). Effect of early father absence on scholastic aptitude,
  89. (1980). Effects of drill practice on aptitude in the learning of mathematics,
  90. (1973). Effects of teacher sex and student sex on classroom interaction,
  91. (1929). English Girlhood at School.
  92. (1965). English Primary Education: A Sociological Description: Volume 1. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  93. (1968). Enquiry into the Flow of Candidates
  94. (1955). Environmental and other characteristics determining attainment in primary education,
  95. (1980). et al
  96. et al (1970,1973,1975), Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.
  97. et al (1971), Effects of social and token reinforcement on wIst Block Design performance,
  98. (1953). Ex-prodigy: My Childhood and Youth.
  99. (1976). Executive Summary Report: Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES).
  100. (1978). Expectancies for Success in Mathematics: the Effects of Students Attributions, Teachers Expectancies and Teacher-Student Interactions.
  101. (1970). Expectation and Pupil Performance.
  102. (1980). Factors affecting female participation In advanced placement programs in mathematics, chemistry, and physics.
  103. (1983). Factors Influencing the Choice of Maths at 'A' level by Boys and Girls.
  104. (1981). Factors influencing the choice of nonrequired mathematics courses,
  105. (1979). Factors Influencing Women's Decisions to Enrol in Advanced Mathematics Courses. Report to the US National Institude of Education.
  106. (1980). Father-Child Interactions and Cognitive Development.
  107. (1971). Feedback procedures in progrannned instruction,
  108. (1980). Female Mathematicians: A contemporary appraisal.
  109. (1976). Field Dependence and Interpersonal Behaviour.
  110. (1971). Field dependence-field independence in 5- to 10-year old children,
  111. (1975). Fifth Form Girls: their hopes for the future. A survey carried out on behalf of the DES.
  112. (1972). From Birth to Seven. Harlaw: Longman/National Children's Bureau.
  113. (1972). From Eighth Grade to Selective College in One Jump: Case Studies in Radical Acceleration, Paper presented at the meeting of the Americal Educational Research Association,
  114. (1973). Further evidence of sex-linked major-gene influence on human spatial visualizing ability,
  115. (1985). Gender differences in basic numeracy and mathematical development,
  116. (1984). Gender imbalances in the primary classroom: am Interactional account,
  117. (1979). Geometric problem solving related to differences In sex and mathematical interests,
  118. (1967). Geometry Through Transformations, Volumes I, II, and III.
  119. (1985). Girls and Mathematics. Bedford Way Papers no.24,
  120. (1982). Girls into science and technology: the first two years,
  121. (1968). Growth changes in factorial structure by age and sex,
  122. (1963). Half Our Future.
  123. (1979). Has Piaget's construct of formal operational thinking any utility?
  124. (1972). Hereditary and environmental components of quantitative reasoning,
  125. (1934). Hind, Self and Society.
  126. (1959). Home Environment and the School.
  127. (1984). How Children Learn Mathematics.
  128. (1982). How the scales are weighted against women.
  129. (1979). Human spatial abilities: psychometric studies and environmental, genetic, hormonal and neurological influences,
  130. (1965). Individual differences in the resolution of response uncertainty,
  131. (1973). Inequalities of teacher-pupil contacts,
  132. (1977). Influences of cognitive, affective, and educational variables on sex-related differences in mathematics learning and. studying,
  133. (1978). Influences on pupil performance,
  134. (1976). Instrumentalism as an Educational Concept. Det Pedagogiske Seminar,
  135. (1957). Intelligence tests, social class, and selection for secondary schools,
  136. (1979). Intelligence, Learning and Action.
  137. (1967). International Study of Achievement in Mathematics, Volumes I and II.
  138. (1972). Interpersonal Relations and Education. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  139. (1982). Invisible Women: The chooling Scandal. Writers and Readers publishing Co-op.
  140. (1974). Is early intervention effective?
  141. (1974). Learning and the Development of Cognition.
  142. (1973). Learning to discover rules by discovery,
  143. (1979). Learning what's taught: sex differences in instruction,
  144. (1968). Life in Classroo.
  145. (1977). Listening to Children Talking.
  146. (1908). Little Journeys to the Homes of Grest Teachers, Volume 23. New York: the Roycrofters.
  147. (1972). Logical capacity of very young children: number invariance rules,
  148. (1978). Looking in Classrooms.
  149. (1972). Maternal influences upon college women's attitudes toward women and work,
  150. (1960). Mathematical ability and masculinity,
  151. (1974). Mathematics and Sex. Booklet published at the
  152. (1979). Mathematics and the 10 year-old. Schools Council Working Paper 61.
  153. (1981). Mathematics Education and Girls. Draft report of BP project, Sheffield City Polytechnic (unpublished).
  154. (1977). Mathematics Education Research: Implications for the Eighties. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,
  155. (1973). Mathematics in further education: difficulties experienced by craft and technician students, Brunel F.E.
  156. (1974). Mathematics learning and the sexes: A review,
  157. (1975). Mathematics Learning; What Research Says about Sex Differences. Eric Centre for Science.
  158. (1980). Mathematics, spatial visualization, and related factors: changes in girls and boys, grades 8-11,
  159. (1981). Mathematics, the critical filter,
  160. (1980). Mathematics, Visual-spatial Ability and Sex-roles. Report to the US National Institute of Education.
  161. (1979). Mathematics: the unpredictability of girls?
  162. (1982). Maths Investigation: technical report.
  163. (1973). Measures of achievement and affiliation motivation,
  164. (1979). Measuring causal attributions for success and failure,
  165. (1974). Mixed or Single-sex Schools? Volume III. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  166. (1967). Mode of Learning and Personality. Research report number 14,
  167. (1974). Motivation and Achievement.
  168. (1983). Moving from the Primary Classroom. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  169. (1985). Multi-dimensional self-concepts: relations with sex and academic achievement,
  170. (1968). Negro and White Children: A Psychological Study in the Rural South.
  171. (1968). Neuroticism and school attainment - a linear relationship?
  172. (1973). New Approaches in Psychological Measurement.
  173. (1967). New Thinking in School Mathematics.
  174. (1976). On learning and development, Piagetian style: 1. a reply to Leebvre-Pinard,
  175. (1985). On the structure of self-concept.
  176. (1978). Overcoming Math Anxiety.
  177. (1972). Parents' Attitudes to Education.
  178. (1963). Pattern and Growth in Personality.
  179. (1972). Patterns of mental abilities: ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences,
  180. (1979). Patterns of parental help,
  181. (1970). Patterns of Verbal Communication in Mathematics Classes.
  182. (1971). Perceiving the Causes of Success and Failure.
  183. (1972). Personality and attainment: an application of psychological principles to educational objectives,
  184. (1973). Personality and performance in elementary mathematics with special reference to item type,
  185. (1969). Personality in primary school children ) I - ability and achievement,
  186. (1970). Personality Tests
  187. (1969). Perspectives on Plowden. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  188. (1969). Physics, femininity and creativity,
  189. (1977). Piagetian psychology and education: time for revision,
  190. (1979). Predicting mathematics performance in high school girls and boys,
  191. (1967). Problem of sex differences in space perception and aspect of intellectual functioning,
  192. (1973). Problem-solving strategies in impulsive and reflective second graders, Developmental Psycho1gy 8, nl,
  193. (1974). Process-product Correlations in the Texas Teacher Effectiveness Study: Final Report. Research Report number 74-4,
  194. (1979). Progressive Learning Theories: The Evidence,
  195. (1976). Projects in mathematics education,
  196. (1976). Psychological Testing.
  197. (1975). Pupil behaviour in Junior classrooms,
  198. (1974). Pupil's expectations of teachers,
  199. (1968). Pygmalion In the Classroom. Hold, Rinehart and Winston.
  200. (1971). Questioned equality for grade one boys and girls,
  201. (1978). Reading Progress in English Infant Schools, Some Problems Emerging from a Study of Teacher Effectiveness. Paper presented to the
  202. (1979). Regardless of sex,
  203. (1969). Relationship between intelligence and special abilities,
  204. (1964). Relationship of sex, grade level, and locale to performance of high IQ students on divergent thinking tests,
  205. (1970). Relationships between attitudes toward school subjects and school achievement,
  206. (1959). Report of the Central Advisory Council for Education '15-18'. Ministry of Education,
  207. Report of the Commissioners appointed to Inquire into the State of Popular Education in England. Volume II.
  208. (1969). Review of "Pygmalion in the Classroom"
  209. (1968). Review of "Pygmalion in the Classrooni' by Rosenthal and Jacobson,
  210. (1975). Richmond Tests of Basic Skills.
  211. (1976). Rite and wrong. A reply to 'A Chaptr of Errors',
  212. (1968). Roles of activation and inhibition in sex ,differences in cognitive abilities,
  213. (1971). Scene of the Battle: Group Behaviour in Urban ClaSsroO,
  214. (1978). School building surveys 1975 and
  215. (1985). Science in single-sex and mixed teaching groups,
  216. (1982). see
  217. (1983). Self-concept: the construct validity of interpretations based upon the SDQ,
  218. (1982). Sex differences in achievement orientations.
  219. (1967). Sex differences in aptitude maturation during high school,
  220. (1969). Sex differences In expectancy of Intellectual and academic reinforcement.
  221. (1980). Sex differences in high school students' causal attributions of performance in mathematics,
  222. (1976). Sex differences In learned helplessness: I. Differential debilitation with peer and adult evaluators,
  223. (1982). Sex differences in math achievement: toward a model of achievement choice,
  224. (1984). Sex differences in math participation. In:
  225. (1980). Sex differences in mathematical ability: fact or artifact,
  226. (1980). Sex differences in mathematical perfonnace: a review of research and possible action.
  227. (1974). Sex differences in mathematics achievement - a longitudinal study,
  228. (1979). Sex differences in mathematics: How not to deal with them,
  229. (1977). Sex differences in mental abilities, hemispheric lateralisation, and rate of physical growth at adolescence,
  230. (1973). Sex differences in reading: An evaluation and critique,
  231. (1961). Sex differences in spatial visualization as evidence of sex-linked inheritance,
  232. (1982). Sex Differentiation
  233. (1971). Sex of the speaker and the grammatical case gender of referenced persons.
  234. (1979). Sex role socialisation and achievement
  235. (1980). Sex Roles and the
  236. (1979). Should We Check Children. University of Leeds: Cognitive development research seminar.
  237. (1974). Social class influence on the amount and type of positive evaluation of school lessons. In:
  238. (1974). Social class, educational attainment and provision:
  239. (1933). Social Development in Young Children: A Study of Beginnings. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  240. (1967). Social Relations in a Secondary School. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  241. (1970). Some criteria for evaluating category systems,
  242. (1970). Some evidence on the Interaction between teaching strategy and personality,
  243. (1975). Some Factors affecting Recruitment to main Mathematics Courses in a College of Education. Unpublished M.Ed. thesis,
  244. (1981). Some processes through which mathematics is lost,
  245. (1978). Some subtractions: what do you think you are doing? Mathematics Teaching,
  246. (1980). Spatial abilities and mathematics education,
  247. (1977). Spatial Ability and. Sex Differences in Performance on Spatial Tasks.
  248. (1980). Spatial ability, sexism and society,
  249. (1981). Statistics of Education, Volume II.
  250. (1968). Structural and affective aspects of classroom climate,
  251. (1972). Structural variables that determine problem-solving difficulty in computer-assisted instruction,
  252. (1974). Student teachers and mathematics: mathematical competence,
  253. (1981). Styles of Learning and Teaching.
  254. (1986). Systematic Classroom Observation.
  255. (1971). Systematic Observation of Teaching.
  256. (1979). Tasks and Social Relationships in Classrooms.
  257. (1960). Teacher Influence, Pupil Attitudes and Achievement Studies in Interaction Analysis.
  258. (1985). Teacher interaction with individual male and female pupils in junior-age classrooms,
  259. (1966). Teacher interactions with boys and girls,
  260. (1974). Teacher interactions with boys and girls. In: STACEY, et al (eds), And Jill Came Tumbling After: Sexism in American Education,
  261. (1975). Teacher involvement in curriculum development,
  262. (1974). Teacher-pupil contact in junior classrooms,
  263. (1978). Teacher-student interactions in desegregated schools,
  264. (1970). Teachers 2 cojiununication of differential expectations for children's classroom performance,
  265. (1980). Teachers and sex bias in mathematics,
  266. (1944). Teachers and Youth Leaders.
  267. (1965). Teachers personality ratings of pupils in Scottish primary schools,
  268. (1968). Teaching approaches and the development of divergent thinking abilities in primary schools,
  269. (1964). Teaching strategies and thought process,
  270. (1981). Teaching Style and Pupil Progress: A ReAnalysis,
  271. (1976). Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress.
  272. (1971). Teaching Technique in Primary Mathematics.
  273. (1975). Teaching/learning processes in elementary schools: A synoptic view,
  274. (1978). Tests of Basic Experience.
  275. (1978). Texas Junior High School Study: Final Report of Process-outcome Relationships, Volume I.
  276. (1975). The aims of primary education: A study of teachers' opinions,
  277. (1978). The characteristics and uses of systematics obseration.
  278. (1960). The Child's Conception of Geometry, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  279. (1952). The Child's Conception of Number. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  280. (1959). The Concept of Motivation.
  281. (1980). The development of sex differences in evaluations of others' successes and failures,
  282. (1952). The Education of Girls.
  283. (1979). The educational utility of Piaget: a reply to Shayer,
  284. (1961). The effects of direct and indirect teacher influence on dependent-prone students learning geometry,
  285. (1973). The effects of material employment and educational attainment on the sex-typed attributes of college females,
  286. (1935). The effects of premature drill in third-grade arithmetic,
  287. (1980). The effects of teacher gender on mathematics achievement of first grade students. Educational dissertation,
  288. (1968). The Evaluation of Certain Intellectual and Conative Outcomes of Nodern and Traditional Mathematics Teaching. Unpublished N.P]ail. thesis,
  289. (1968). The failure strategies of third grade arithmetic pupil
  290. (1967). The Girls School. Faber anU Faber Ltd.
  291. (1958). The Growth of Logical Thinking. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  292. (1980). The Hissing Half. Manchester:
  293. (1964). The Home and the School. MacGibbon and Kee.
  294. (1980). The importance of being Ernest...Eim'a...Tom,. .Jane: the perception and categorizatior of gender, conformity and gender deviation in primary schools.
  295. (1974). The influence of children's sex-role standards on reading and arithmetic achievement,
  296. (1971). The influence of masculine, feminine, and neutral tasks on children's achievement behaviour, expectancies of success, and attainment values,
  297. (1973). The Inter-relationships between Personality, Divergent Thinking and School Attainment.
  298. (1976). The Lancaster Study: Its implications for teacher training,
  299. (1958). The Mathematical Ability: Experimental and Factorial Studies.
  300. (1978). The mathematics research of the CSMS project at Chelsea College,
  301. (1978). The matthew effect in the classroom,
  302. (1970). The nature of verbal discourse in classrooms. In:
  303. (1975). The other observer in a perspectives task,
  304. (1973). The personal record of school experiences (PROSE). In:
  305. (1980). The Problems of Teachers of Mathematics. A report of an experiment in group enquiry,
  306. (1971). The Psychology of Learning Mathematics.
  307. (1975). The Psychology of Sex Differences.
  308. (1944). The Public Schools and the General Educational System. Board of Education.
  309. (1961). The relation of neuroticism and extraversion to educational attainment,
  310. (1954). The relation of the behaviour of teachers to the productive behaviour of their pupils. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  311. (1966). The relationship between personality characteristics and scholastic success in 11 year old children,
  312. (1979). The Self-Concept. Volume II.
  313. (1984). The self-description questionnaire: Age and sex effects in the structure and level of self-concept for pre-adolescent children,
  314. (1981). The sex factor: real or not in mathematics education.
  315. (1926). The Story of Reckoning in the Middle Ages.
  316. (1974). The Study of Teaching.
  317. (1969). The Trns1tion to Secondary Education. University of London Press.
  318. (1973). The use of direct observation to study teaching.
  319. (1978). The use of Kelly's Repertory Grid to conceptualise classroom
  320. (1972). Theories of Motivation: From Mechanism to Cognition.
  321. (1976). Three determinants of difficulty in verbal arithmetic problems,
  322. (1967). Traditional sex attitudes and discrepant ability measures In college women,
  323. (1971). Transitive inferences and memory in young children,
  324. (1976). Two Statistical Problems in Classroom Research.
  325. (1971). Type of mathematics teaching, mathematical ability and divergent thinking in junior school children,
  326. (1981). Using artificial intelligence in the classroom,
  327. (1979). Variables affecting word problem difficulty In elementary school mathematics,
  328. (1912). Vives and the Renaissance Education of
  329. (1974). Wait time and. rewards as instructional variables, their influence on languages, logic and fate control,
  330. (1969). Wanted: 20,000 malle first-grade school teachers
  331. (1982). We make girls miss out on maths,
  332. (1968). What Is learned in mathematIcal discovery?
  333. (1979). What sex is science? In:
  334. (1970). Which pupils do teachers call on?,
  335. (1913). Woman in Science.
  336. (1981). Women and educational research,
  337. (1979). Women and girls In mathematics - equity in mathematics education,
  338. (1981). Women and mathematics: fact and fiction,
  339. (1977). Women and Maths: Research Perspectives for Change. Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office.
  340. (1980). Women and the Mathematical Mystique.
  341. (1974). Women in Mathematics.
  342. (1970). yes, no, yes The answer Is 16 And then you write 9
  343. (1980). You want Physics for everything, Education_In Science,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.