Context: Steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) deficiency (11OHD) is the second most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Cases of nonclassic 11OHD are rare compared with the incidence of nonclassic 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the functional consequences of seven novel CYP11B1 mutations (p.M88I, p.W116G, p.P159L, p.A165D, p.K254_A259del, p.R366C, p.T401A) found in three patients with classic 11OHD, two patients with nonclassic 11OHD, and three heterozygous carriers for CYP11B1 mutations. Methods: We conducted functional studies employing a COS7 cell in vitro expression system comparing wild-type (WT) and mutant CYP11B1 activity. Mutants were examined in a computational three-dimensional model of the CYP11B1 protein. Results: All mutations (p.W116G, p.A165D, p.K254_A259del) found in patients with classic 11OHD have absent or very little 11β-hydroxylase activity relative to WT. The mutations detected in patients with nonclassic 11OHD showed partial functional impairment, with one patient being homozygous (p.P159L; 25% of WT) and the other patient compound heterozygous for a novel mild p.M88I (40% of WT) and the known severe p.R383Q mutation. The two mutations detected in heterozygous carriers (p.R366C, p.T401A) also reduced CYP11B1 activity by 23 to 37%, respectively. Conclusion: Functional analysis results allow for the classification of novel CYP11B1 mutations as causative for classic and nonclassic 11OHD, respectively. Four partially inactivating mutations are predicted to result in nonclassic 11OHD. These findings double the number of mild CYP11B1 mutations previously described as associated with mild 11OHD. Our data are important to predict phenotypic expression and provide important information for clinical and genetic counseling i
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