Also available via arxiv.org.Observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with Swift produced the initially surprising\ud result that many bursts have large X-ray flares superimposed on the underlying afterglow. These flares were sometimes intense, rapid, and late relative to the nominal prompt phase. The most intense\ud of these flares was observed by XRT with a flux >500x the afterglow. This burst then surprised observers by flaring again after >10000 s. The intense flare can be most easily understood within the context of the standard fireball model, if the internal engine that powers the prompt GRB emission\ud is still active at late times. Recent observations indicate that X-ray flares are detected in ∼1/3 of XRT detected afterglows. By studying the properties of the varieties of flares (such as rise/fall time, onset time, spectral variability, etc.) and relating them to overall burst properties, models of flare production and the GRB internal engine can be constrained
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