Grass-clover pastures form an essential part of organic farming systems. It is well known that nitrogen fixing bacteria play a key role in determining productivity of grass-clover pastures. Yet, the impact of other plant symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, on grass-clover is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that AM fungi enhanced red clover biomass and enabled red clover to coexist with grass. Moreover, the diversity of AM fungi in the soil promoted productivity of grass-clover mixtures. Inoculation experiments in a range of field soils with native AM fungi showed that addition of AM fungi promoted clover biomass in several (but not all) soils. This study shows that AM fungi can be important for clover establishment in pastures
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