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Effects of Biphenyl Polymerization on Lithium Deposition in Commercial Graphite/NMC Lithium-Ion Pouch-Cells during Calendar Aging at High Temperature

By Bramy Pilipili Matadi, Sylvie Geniès, Arnaud DELAILLE, Thomas Waldmann, Michael Kasper, Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Frederic Aguesse, Emilie Bekaert, Isabel Jiménez-Gordon, Lise Daniel, Xavier Fleury, Michel Bardet, Jean-Frédéric Martin and Yann Bultel

Abstract

International audienceMetallic lithium deposition is a typical aging mechanism observed in lithium-ion cells at low temperature and/or at high charge rate. Lithium dendrite growth not only leads to strong capacity fading, it also causes safety concerns such as short-circuits in the cell. In applications such as electric vehicles, the use of lithium-ion batteries combines discharging, long rest time and charging phases. It is foremost a matter of lifetime and safety from the perspective of the consumer or the investor. This study presents the post-mortem analyses of commercial 16 Ah Graphite/NMC (Nickel Manganese Cobalt layered oxide) Li-ion pouch cells. The cells were degraded by calendar aging at high temperature with or without periodic capacity tests. Unexpected local depositions of metallic lithium were confirmed on graphite electrodes by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Biphenyl, a monomer additive present in the liquid electrolyte, generates gas during its polymerization reaction occurring at high temperature and at high state of charge. As a result, dry-out areas are present between the electrodes leading to high impedance regions and no charge transfer between the electrodes. It is at the border of these areas that lithium metal is deposited

Topics: aging mechanisms, biphenyl, calendar aging, large scale pouch cells, Lithium-ion batteries, localized lithium deposition, Post-Mortem analysis, [CHIM]Chemical Sciences, [SPI.MAT]Engineering Sciences [physics]/Materials, [CHIM.MATE]Chemical Sciences/Material chemistry
Publisher: 'The Electrochemical Society'
Year: 2017
DOI identifier: 10.1149/2.0631706jes
OAI identifier: oai:HAL:hal-01939463v1
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