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いわき地方と三浦半島の閉窩式銛頭

By 健 高橋

Abstract

日本列島の先史時代の銛頭については,日本列島全体を視野に入れた伝播系統論の枠組みが提示されている。しかし,遠く隔たった地域間の系統関係が論じられる一方で,資料的な制約もあり地域的な編年研究はあまり行われてこなかった。本稿では,比較的多くの資料が得られている福島県いわき地方と神奈川県三浦半島を対象として閉窩式銛頭の編年的研究を行った。いわき地方の資料を寺脇型・真石型・薄磯型に分類し,寺脇型を真石型の大部分よりも古く位置づけ,真石型内部での変遷過程を示した。薄磯型の出現過程については,技術的共通性を有しながらも独自性を保っていた仙台湾・三陸地方との関係が変化し,その影響を受けて成立したと考えた。三浦半島の資料を三浦型と呼称し,弥生時代中期後半に尖頭で単距・双拒の銛頭が現れ,後期に入ると刃溝をもつ銛頭や三距の銛頭が出現するという編年案を示した。弥生文化と続縄文文化における横方向索孔をもつ銛頭についてほ,その出現過程が各地域で多様であることから,必ずしも一つの中心地から広域への強力な,あるいは玉突き状の伝播によるものと解釈する必要はないと考えられる。This paper discusses the typology and chronology of the closed socket harpoon heads of Jomon and Yayoi period, specifically those of the Iwaki Region and the Miura Peninsula (Fig. 1). Closed socket harpoon heads of the Iwaki Region, Fukushima Prefecture, are divided into three types: Terawaki, Maishi and Usuiso (Fig. 2). Maishi type, with a line groove instead of a line hole, is subdivided into 4 subtypes (a~d) by the frontal shape (Fig. 3), which probably served as a fixing device of the end blade. Based on the stratigraphic data at the Usuiso and Terawaki sites, the closed socket harpoon heads of the Iwaki Region are chronologically divided into five stages (Fig. 11), which cover from the end of the Late Jomon period to the first half of the Middle Yayoi period. Usuiso type, with a line hole at right angle to the spur, appeared by the first half of the Middle Yayoi period. Closed socket harpoon heads of the Miura Peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture, are given the name "Miura type". Miura type harpoon heads are subdivided into three subtypes (a~c) also by its frontal shape (Fig. 12). A chronological order (subtype a→b→c1→c2) can be derived from the typology and the association with the pottery, though it needs more data through further excavations. The subtype-a of the Miura type, with a conical tip, appeared on the Miura Peninsula in the second half of the Middle Yayoi period. A Tsubame-gata (swallow-shaped) type harpoon head, which flourished in the middle Tohoku region in the Late and Final Jomon period, usually has a line hole parallel to the spur. On the other hand, Usuiso type and Miura type are characterized by having a closed socket harpoon head with a line hole at right angles to the their spurs, a common feature of the closed socket toggle harpoon heads of Hokkaido in the first half of the Epi-Jomon period. This "change in the line hole direction" has often been explained as the result of a strong cultural diffusion, which spread from the middle Tohoku region. This paper, however, illustrates that harpoon heads with line holes at right angles to the spurs appeared through different processes in each area. Therefore, instead of assuming a strong diffusion from a cultural center, the "change in the line hole direction" should be interpreted as a result of the extinction of the Tsubame-gata type harpoon head, which had a strong tradition of a line hole parallel to the spur

Topics: 202.5
Publisher: 東京大学考古学研究室
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:repository.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp:2261/4461
Provided by: UT Repository

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