Kandel's division theory was introduced to Japan in the educational reform after World War II. Kandel was an important member of the Education Mission, so the description of the Mission Report resembled Kandel's in the institutional plan, the used term and wording, including the view of education and democracy, but the contradictory principles of teaching freedom and popular control were put side by side without proper arrangement. Japanese people in charge of the educational reform had the similar plan and view to Kandel and the Mission members. Especially the bill of teacher's ststus had the provisions of teaching freedom for relieving a teacher as a profession from imperative relationship and the professional personnel administration. Regretably the bill was soon repealed. After 1950's the government became opposite to the after-war reform ideals. The division theory of the advocates of 'people's right to education' has been constructed to protect the freedom of teaching under the hostile relationship with the government. For this reason the division theory in Japan has made radical and progressive in contrast to Kandel's
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