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Persistent Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in a western Cambodian population: implications for prevention, treatment and elimination strategies

By Rupam Tripura, Thomas J. Peto, Jeremy Chalk, Sue J. Lee, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Chea Nguon, Mehul Dhorda, Lorenz von Seidlein, Richard J. Maude, Nicholas P. J. Day, Mallika Imwong, Nicholas J. White and Arjen M. Dondorp

Abstract

Background: Subclinical Plasmodium parasitaemia is an important reservoir for the transmission and persistence of malaria, particularly in low transmission areas. Methods: Using ultrasensitive quantitative PCR (uPCR) for the detection of parasitaemia, the entire population of three Cambodian villages in Pailin province were followed for 1 year at three-monthly intervals. A cohort of adult participants found initially to have asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia was followed monthly over the same period. Results: The initial cross sectional survey in June 2013 (M0) of 1447 asymptomatic residents found that 32 (2.2 %) had Plasmodium falciparum, 48 (3.3 %) had P. vivax, 4 (0.3 %) had mixed infections and in 142/1447 (9.8 %) malaria was detected but there was insufficient DNA to identify the species (Plasmodium. species). Polymorphisms in the ‘K13-propeller’ associated with reduced susceptibility to artemisinin derivatives (C580Y) were found in 17/32 (51 %) P. falciparum strains. Monthly follow-up without treatment of 24 adult participants with asymptomatic mono or mixed P. falciparum infections found that 3/24 (13 %) remained parasitaemic for 2–4 months, whereas the remaining 21/24 (87 %) participants had cleared their parasitaemia after 1 month. In contrast, 12/34 (35 %) adult participants with P. vivax mono-infection at M0 had malaria parasites (P. vivax or P. sp.) during four or more of the following 11 monthly surveys. Conclusions: This longitudinal survey in a low transmission setting shows limited duration of P. falciparum carriage, but prolonged carriage of P. vivax infections. Radical treatment of P. vivax infections by 8-aminoquinoline regimens may be required to eliminate all malaria from Cambodia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01872702 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1224-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

Topics: Malaria, Persistence, Cohort, Plasmodium, Falciparum, Vivax, Clearance, Artemisinins, Resistance, Pailin, Cambodia, PCR
Publisher: 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC'
Year: 2016
DOI identifier: 10.1186/s12936-016-1224-7.
OAI identifier: oai:dash.harvard.edu:1/26318718
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