The aim of this article is to describe the role of second-level imaging techniques after an initial ultrasonography evaluation in the\ud assessment of scrotal diseases. While ultrasonography remains central as the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of\ud pathologic conditions of the scrotum, the role of magnetic resonance imaging continues to evolve: it can actually be valuable as a\ud problem-solving tool when sonographic findings are equivocal or inconclusive. Magnetic resonance imaging of the scrotum may\ud provide accurate detection and characterization of scrotal diseases, well depicting the precise location of scrotal masses\ud (intratesticular or extratesticular) and reliably characterizing benign conditions simulating neoplastic processes, thus preventing\ud unnecessary radical surgery. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques, most of all diffusion weighted imaging and magnetic\ud resonance spectroscopy, play in the meanwhile a more significant role in evaluating scrotal diseases.\ud Teaching points\ud • Multiparametric ultrasonography usually represents the initial imaging modality for approaching scrotal diseases.\ud • MRI is well established as a problem-solving tool for inconclusive sonographic findings.\ud • Advanced MRI techniques can be successfully applied in scrotal pathology assessment.\ud • MRI is valuable in differentiating benign conditions from neoplastic processes.\ud • CT plays a role in trauma assessment and cancer staging alongside PET/CT
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