Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Morphological separation of the Central European Trochosa females (Araneae, Lycosidae)

By Martin Hepner and Norbert Milasowszky


Adult females of the five Central European wolf spiders Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, T. robusta (Simon, 1876), T. ruricola (De Geer, 1778), T. spinipalpis (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1895), and T. terricola Thorell, 1856 were morphologically analysed. We defined sets of continuous and binary (presence/absence) variables. Continuous data of various epigynal and carapace dimensions were subjected to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Using the PC loadings each individual was plotted along the PC axis in order to find gaps/overlaps between the species. The binary data sets were subjected to Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) in order to find characters that clearly separate the five Trochosa species. Using PCA only individuals of T. robusta and T. ruricola and of T. robusta and T. hispanica could be separated from each other. Using HCA all five species could clearly be separated by epigynal and vulval characteristics

Topics: ddc:590
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1959). Beitrag zur Bestimmung der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Trochosa doi
  2. (1995). Collins field guide.
  3. (1908). Die Lycosidae oder Wolfspinnen Deutschlands und ihre Stellung im Haushalt der Natur. Nach statistischen Untersuchungen dargestellt.
  4. (1988). Lycosid spiders of Japan II. The genus Trochosa doi
  5. (1999). Morphological variation in Pardosa maisa Hippa & Mannila
  6. (1959). Notes on spiders II. About some females of the genus Trochosa
  7. (1991). Spinnen Mitteleuropas: Ein Bestimmungsbuch. Verlag Paul Parey, doi
  8. (1985). The spiders of Great Britain and Ireland,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.