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Per liberam personam possessio adquiritur

By Mirela Šarac and Irena Stanić

Abstract

Premda je u rimskom pravu vrijedilo načelo prema kojem je bilo zabranjeno stjecanje putem slobodnih osoba: per extraneam personam nobis adquiri non posse, ta je zabrana zbog zahtjeva pravnog prometa ublažena u oblasti stjecanja posjeda i vlasništva. Rimsko je pravo upravo kod stjecanja posjeda počelo odstupati od stava o nemogućnosti neposrednog zastupanja, vjerojatno zbog toga što se kod posjeda ne radi o pravu nego o faktičnom odnosu. Već je u klasičnom razdoblju dopušteno stjecanje posjeda putem prokuratora kao stalnog upravitelja imovine. Procurator omnium bonorum stječe posjed za gospodara utilitatis causa. Neracije, istaknuti predstavnik Prokulijanske škole, bio je prvi pravnik po čijem je mišljenju bilo dopušteno stjecanje posjeda putem prokuratora. Gajeve Institucije pokazuju da Neracijevo mišljenje nije bilo općeprihvaćeno u klasičnom razdoblju jer su pristaše Sabinijanske škole bili protiv mogućnosti stjecanja posjeda per liberam personam. Septimije i Karakala su konstitucijom C.7.32.1 omogućili po prvi put neograničeno stjecanje posjeda per procuratorem, što je nedvojbeno dopušteno tek u Paulovim Sentencijama. Dioklecijanove konstitucije ponavljaju klasično stanje. Tek je približavanje instituta mandata i prokure omogućilo Justinijanovim kompilatorima da dopuste stjecanje posjeda za drugoga putem svake slobodne osobe i to, kako u slučaju da je zastupani bio upoznat s time, tako i u slučaju kada je on kod stjecanja posjeda nastupao kao ignorans, uz pozivanje na utilitatis causa.Although in the Roman law was in force the principle according to which was forbidden the acquisition by free persons: per extraneam personam nobis adquiri non posse, that prohibition was moderated in the domain of acquisition of possession and ownership because of the necessitiy of judicial trade. As regards the acquistion of possession the Roman Law started to retreat from the position of the impossibilty of immediate representation probably because the possession doesn’t have anything to see with the law but with the real (effective, material) relation. Already in the classical period was allowed the acquisition of possession through the procurator as the permanent administrator of property. Procurator omnium bonorum acquires the possession for the master utilitatis causa. Neracius, the prominent representative of the Proculian school, was the first lawyer that allowed the acquisition of possession through the procurator. Gaius’ Institutiones shows that Neracio’s opinion wasn’t completely accepted in the Classical period because the followers of the Sabinian school were against the possibility of acquisition of possession per liberam personam. Septimius and Caracala, by the constitution C.7.32.1 ., for the first time made possible the unlimited acquisition of possession per procuratorem, that undoubtedly was allowed only in Paul’s Sententions. Diocletian’s Constitutions confirm the positions of the Classical period. Only the approaching of the institution of mandate and procuratory enabled the Giustinian compilators to allow the acuisition of possession for the other through any free person: that was valid whether the represented was acquinted with it or in case he was represented as ignorans, appealing on utilitatis causa

Topics: rimsko pravo; posjed; stjecanje posjeda; slobodna osoba; prokurator, Roman law; possession; acquisition of the possession; free person; procurator
Publisher: Faculty of Law University of Rijeka
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:hrcak.srce.hr:52649

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