© 2017 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. U. Rehman, & S. Cao. (2017). IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 47(1), 140–151. https://doi.org/10.1109/THMS.2016.2620106Navigation systems have been widely used in outdoor environments, but indoor navigation systems are still in early development stages. In this paper, we introduced an augmented-reality-based indoor navigation application to assist people navigate in indoor environments. The application can be implemented on electronic devices such as a smartphone or a head-mounted device. In particular, we examined Google Glass as a wearable head-mounted device in comparison with handheld navigation aids including a smartphone and a paper map. We conducted both a technical assessment study and a human factors study. The technical assessment established the feasibility and reliability of the system. The human factors study evaluated human-machine system performance measures including perceived accuracy, navigation time, subjective comfort, subjective workload, and route memory retention. The results showed that the wearable device was perceived to be more accurate, but other performance and workload results indicated that the wearable device was not significantly different from the handheld smartphone. We also found that both digital navigation aids were better than the paper map in terms of shorter navigation time and lower workload, but digital navigation aids resulted in worse route retention. These results could provide empirical evidence supporting future designs of indoor navigation systems. Implications and future research were also discussed.This work was supported in part by NSERC Discovery Grant RGPIN-2015-04134
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