The use of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immune globulin (HIVIG) in prevention of HIV infection in chimpanzees was investigated in the hope of ultimate application to interruption of vertical transmission. In previous experiments, no protection was observed when relatively high challenge doses were used. This study shows that HIVIG protected against a challenge dose (10 CID50) tenfold lower than that used previously. The protected animal remained free of HIV infection as determined by cocultivation and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and did not mount a primary immune response detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and neutralization assays. These results imply that HIV vaccines should induce neutralizing antibody and may not need to induce cell-mediated immunity in order to be protective against exposure to HIV. They also provide an experimental basis for the conduct of clinical trials to evaluate prevention of maternal-infant transmission by HIVI
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