Multivariate longitudinal data are characterized by three modes: variables, occasions and subjects. Three-mode models are described as special cases of a linear latent variable model. The assumption of measurement invariance across occasions yields three-mode models that are suited for the analysis of multivariate longitudinal data. These so-called longitudinal three-mode models include autoregressive models and latent curve models as special cases. Empirical data from the field of industrial psychology are used in an example of how to test substantive hypotheses with the longitudinal, autoregressive and latent curve three-mode model
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