Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Normal and oblique penetration of woven CFRP laminates by a high velocity steel sphere

By P. J. Hazell, G. Kister, C. Stennett, P. Bourque and G. Cooper


In this research, two thicknesses of a woven CFRP laminate have been subjected to impact by a steel sphere in a velocity regime ranging from 170 to 374 m/s. Impact and penetration of targets at normal and oblique incidence were studied using high speed video. For the normal incidence targets at the higher velocities of impact, a conical mass of laminate was ejected ahead of the projectile. Furthermore, despite the energy transferred to the plate increasing with impact energy, the degree of delamination in the thicker targets decreased indicating a change in projectile penetration mechanism. Eventually, the degree of delamination in the thicker targets appeared to approach an asymptotic level whereas for the thinner targets the degree of delamination appeared constant regardless of impact energy. For oblique targets, more of the kinetic energy was transferred from the projectile when compared to the same thickness of target that had been subjected to a normal incidence impact. However, this was merely due to a geometrical effect. Further, thicker panels appeared to behave more efficiently by absorbing more kinetic energy per effective linear thickness at the lower impact energies where petalling is a dominant factor in the penetration. This advantage appeared to disappear as the impact energy was increased

Topics: penetration mechanics, spherical projectiles, failure mechanisms, Carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer
Publisher: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.
Year: 2008
DOI identifier: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2008.01.007
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles


  1. (1986). An assessment of the impact performance of CFRP reinforced with high-strain carbon fibres. doi
  2. An assessment of the potential of woven carbon fibrereinforced plastics for high performance applications. doi
  3. Comparison of the low and high velocity impact response of CFRP. doi
  4. (1970). Cryogenic materials data handbook, Volume 1, Sections A-C, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Air Force Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,
  5. (1993). Dynamic penetration of graphite/epoxy laminates impacted by a blunt-ended projectile. doi
  6. (1998). Effect of laminate parameters on penetration of graphite/epoxy composites. doi
  7. Fracture behavior of CFRPs impacted by relatively high-velocity steel sphere. doi
  8. High-resolution optical study of the impact of carbon-fibre reinforced polymers with different lay-ups. doi
  9. (1990). Impact perforation of carbon fibre reinforced plastics. doi
  10. (2008). Impact response of tough carbon fibre composites. Comp Struct 1989;13:1-19. doi
  11. (1992). Impactor mass and specimen geometry effects in low velocity impact of laminated composites. doi
  12. (1996). Review of low-velocity impact properties of composite materials. doi
  13. (2006). Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials. doi
  14. Stress and strain measurements in carbon-related materials impacted by high-velocity steel spheres. doi
  15. The effect of low temperatures on the intermediate and high velocity impact response of CFRPs. doi
  16. The impact resistance of composite materials — a review. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.