Lutzsimulium d'Andretta Jr & Vulcano, 1947 is an enigmatic South American genus with four species: L. flavopubescens Lutz, 1910, L. hirticosta Lutz, 1909, L. pernigrum Lutz, 1910 and L. simplicicolor Lutz, 1910. It can be diagnosed by median arms of furcasternum with projections; subbasal tooth of the claw reduced; wing basal cell absent; spermatheca with net-like structure; apex of trichomes coiled (pupa); gill with two main trunks (pupa); antennomere 3 equal to or longer than 1+2 (larva); hypostomal teeth reduced (larva); postgenal cleft deep (larva). A morphological cladistic analysis under equal weights, with the four Lutzsimulium species and six outgroups, resulted in two most parsimonious trees, with 81 steps, CI = 0.61 and RI = 0.68. The monophyly of the genus is corroborated, supported by 15 synapomorphies, therefore it is proposed that Kempfsimulium Py-Daniel & Nunes de Mello, 1982 is synonymous of Lutzsimulium. Also the status of Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1973 and Araucnephioides Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1973 are revalidated, because they do not form a monophyletic group with Lutzsimulium. All the species of Lutzsimulium are revised, with redescriptions, illustrations and identification keys for adults, pupa and larva. The male and larva of L. flavopubescens are described for the first time
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