The characters defining Mecosarthron Buquet, 1840 and Xixuthrus Thomson 1864 are discussed, along with a historical review of the literature that described and classified these taxa. Through morphological examination of these genera and most of the included species, we addressed the systematic placement of Xixuthrus domingoensis Fisher, 1932 that was placed in Mecosarthron by Ivie (1985). We restore its placement in the genus Xixuthrus. The first description of the female of X. domingoensis is provided, along with comparative redescriptions of Mecosarthron gounellei (Lameere, 1903), and M. buphagus Buquet, 1840. We include a key to the species currently in Mecosarthron
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