Karl von Clausewitz defined war as “ … an act of violenceintended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will … In order to attain this object fully, the enemy must be disarmed, and disarmament becomes therefore the immediate object of hostilities … . ” At the end of the second millennium, this definition no longer describes the full spectrum of modern war-fare. In the near future, – with software alone – we will have the potential to make war without the use of violence and fulfill the second half of von Clauswitz’s definition. Today’s software-intensive systems make this possible. Cyber describes systems that use mechanical or electronic sys-tems to replace human control. In this paper the term includes systems that incorporate software as a key control element. Cyber warfare can be executed without violence, and therefore the dependence on software intensive systems – cyber systems – can make nations vulnerable to warfare without violence
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