&nbsp; Background: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice for many patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Long-term complications such as osteoporosis should be considered, because it is directly associated with the morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to assess the bone mineral density after allogenic or autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with leukemia or lymphoma.Methods: We prospectively investigated 63 patients undergoing BMT for acute and chronic leukemia and lymphoma. At the end of the study, a total of 28 patients were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured prior BMT, and 6 and 12 months after BMT. Osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (ICTP) were assessed. Serum concentration of calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, PTH and sex hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol) were also measured.Results: There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of the femoral neck six months after BMT (p&lt;0.001), 1.01&plusmn;0.13g/cm&sup2; prior to BMT and 0.96&plusmn;0.13 g/cm&sup2; at six months, but no considerable changes were seen in lumbar vertebrae. Bone loss between the 6th and 12th months was not observed. The levels of ICTP and phosphorus increased significantly by the 12th month (p=0.04). The level of calcium was higher at the 6th month (p=0.002) but the level of vitamin D and PTH decreased by the end of the study (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively) and the average of osteocalcin did not increase significantly. In women, the level of estradiol decreased by the 6th month (p=0.01), but the testosterone changes were not significant.Conclusion: The risk of bone loss in both allogeneic and autologous BMT is higher in the femoral neck than the lumbar vertebrae, occurring mainly in the first six months after BMT. Preventive and clinical procedures should be considered
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.