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Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

By Hua Dong Yin, Long Zhang, Ming Yao Yang, Huai Liang Xu, Rüdiger Hardeland, David Glenn Smith, Di Yan Li and Qing Zhu

Abstract

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor

Topics: melatonin receptor, evolution, vertebrates, Chemistry, QD1-999, Science, Q, DOAJ:Chemistry (General), DOAJ:Chemistry, Biology (General), QH301-705.5
Publisher: MDPI AG
Year: 2013
DOI identifier: 10.3390/ijms140611208
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:090a0c4558124e52bc18ef7deb85cfc1
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