Gesmar RS Segundo1, Fab&iacute;ola A Gomes2, Karla P Fernandes1, Ronaldo Alves3, Deise AO Silva3, Ernesto A Taketomi31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Nursery, 3Laboratory of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, BrazilBackground: Therapy for allergic rhinitis aims to control symptoms and improve the quality of life. The treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, environmental controls, pharmacologic treatment, and specific immunotherapy.Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical changes and the levels of interferon-&gamma; (IFN-&gamma;) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in nasal lavage fluid from children with allergic rhinitis after different types of pharmacologic treatment (mometasone, montelukast, or desloratadine).Methods: Twenty-four children aged from six to 12 years with moderate persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into three groups receiving monotherapy treatment over four weeks: nasal corticosteroid (mometasone), leukotriene modifier (montelukast), or antihistamine (desloratadine). The perception of symptom improvement during the medication use was evaluated at the end of the treatment. Samples of nasal lavage fluid were collected before and after treatment for measuring IFN-&gamma; and IL-5 cytokines by ELISA.Results: All parents perceived an improvement in symptoms. Significant enhancement was seen in the mometasone group compared to those with montelukast (P = 0.01) and desloratadine (P = 0.02). No significant differences were found among the three groups in the levels of IL-5 and IFN-&gamma; in nasal fluid at baseline or after treatment. Only the group treated with mometasone showed a slight but significant reduction in IL-5 levels after the treatment period as compared with levels before the treatment (P = 0.0469).Conclusion: The group treated with mometasone showed better improvement of clinical symptoms and a slight reduction in IL-5 levels in the nasal fluid. This may indirectly reflect the relative immunomodulatory effects of the drugs tested.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, cytokines, IL-5, IFN-&gamma;, nasal fluid, desloratadine, mometasone, montelukast, allerg
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