<p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contained in tobacco smoke and a variety of environmental and occupational dusts is a toxic agent causing lung inflammation characterized by migration of neutrophils and monocytes into alveoli. Although migration of inflammatory cells into alveoli of LPS-treated rats is well characterized, the dynamics of their accumulation in the perivascular space (PVS) leading to a perivascular inflammation (PVI) of pulmonary arteries is not well described.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Therefore, we investigated migration of neutrophils and monocytes into PVS in lungs of male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intratracheally with <it>E. coli </it>LPS and euthanized after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours. Control rats were treated with endotoxin-free saline. H&E stained slides were made and immunohistochemistry was performed using a monocyte marker and the chemokine Monocyte-Chemoattractant-Protein-1 (MCP-1). Computer-assisted microscopy was performed to count infiltrating cells.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Surprisingly, the periarterial infiltration was not a constant finding in each animal although LPS-induced alveolitis was present. A clear tendency was observed that neutrophils were appearing in the PVS first within 6 hours after LPS application and were decreasing at later time points. In contrast, mononuclear cell infiltration was observed after 24 hours. In addition, MCP-1 expression was present in perivascular capillaries, arteries and the epithelium.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>PVI might be a certain lung reaction pattern in the defense to infectious attacks.</p
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