Economists have long searched for patterns that relate successful development to structure and policy. This article reviews the experience of growth and industrialization in the postwar period in more than 100 economies, drawing on time-series data over a three-decade period. Economies are classified according to their population size, the share of primary or manufactured goods in their exports, and the weight of exports in gross domestic product (GDP). We examine the composition of demand, trade, output, manufacturing type, and factor use overall and between sectors as they relate to income growth. Higher income growth and more marked transformation are found among the groups with large populations, a predominance of manufactures in exports, and a larger role of exports. We also find that the patterns suggested by cross-country analysis are robust when tested using the time series data now available. Although development experiences may vary over time and across countries, there is sufficient uniformity within them for the main features of structural transformation to emerge as clear and consistent patterns of modern economic growth.