Despite constraints like rearing of livestock under sub optimal conditions due to low economic status of livestock owners, India has now become the largest producer of milk in the world. The development of Indian dairy sector is an unprecedented success story as it is based on millions of small producers. Government of India is making concerted efforts to raise the per capita availability of milk through increase in productivity of milch animals. In order to achieve this ambitious goal, assistance is being provided to the State Governments for controlling animal diseases, scientific management and upgradation of genetic resources, increasing availability of nutritious feeds and fodder, etc. In the present milieu, when production of dairy products to match international standards has become necessary to compete in international market of milk and milk products, steps need to be initiated to improve quality of Indian milk products with a view to boost export trade of these products in free trade regime and earn valuable foreign exchange as well as provide clean and quality milk to domestic population for their better health.