This paper discusses the development of local loop unbundling in telecommunications markets throughout the European Union. It elaborates on the regulatory framework in Europe and provides an overview of recent experiences in Europe. Different types of unbundling, allowing for different types of entry and services provided by entrants, are discussed. This paper also explores the challenges for policy and regulation that arise because of unbundling and recent, related technological developments in the markets for fixed voice telephony and broadband internet access, particularly the emergence of packet-switched telephony such as VoIP.
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