This article aims at identifying the research issues and challenges that need to be addressed to achieve sustainable transportation system for Indian cities. The same is achieved by understanding the current system and trends of urbanization, motorization and modal shares in India; and their impact on mobility and safety (the two basic goals of transportation) as well as environment. Further, the article explores the efforts by the central and state governments in India to address the sustainability issues, and the problems and issues over and above the present efforts to achieve sustainability. The article concludes by summarizing the research issues with respect to planning/modelling, non-motorized transport, public transport, driver behaviour and road safety and traffic management. It is expected that these research issues will provide potential directions for carrying out further research aimed at achieving sustainable transport system for Indian cities
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