Generally medicine and the curing of illnesses was one of the subjects that occupied and occupy all human societies. We can assume that the degree of growth of society is proportional with the concern in social subjects such as those related to the curing of illnesses and medicine. The established image of Sparta and its wider region is one of a military and strict society. However it is overlooked that in the valley of lacedaimona bloomed an important civilization in which medicine was not given second priority, on the contrary to the lacedaimonians the operation of medicine and the role of doctors was of high importance. The prior opinion results from evidence of the wide adoration of medical deities in Laconia, from the number of Asclepius sanctuaries that functioned in the wider region of Laconia and, on a more scientific level, from the presence and the action of Spartan doctors in Rome, from the introduction of medicine to the city up to its period of abundance.