The dissertation consists of two parts. The first part deals with the following tasks? (a) the design of a research model, ICMAS, suitable for the analysis of Science Education programs, (b) the investigation of the relation between Science Education and Social Theory and (c) the indication of the basic characteristics of the, so called, neoliberal- neoconservative politics in Science education. The above works permitted, subsequently, the critical analysis of several international Science & Technology Literacy Programs, whose conclusions led to the demonstration of the social, ideological and educational orientations of the specific programs. In the second part of the dissertation we expounded an alternative Science and Technology Literacy proposal for the design of which, we adopted basic principles of the Critical Social Theory and Ecology along with the basic ideas of the Progressive Pedagogy and Human Action Pedagogy as well.