Up until the late 1950s, organizational design was dominated by the structurally universal bureaucratic model and the classical management theories associated with Fayol\ud (1916) and Weber (1947). However, increasing technological\ud change and instability within the working environment meant that while certain bureaucratic traits were still desirable, the total rigid bureaucratic concept was no longer feasible. Moreover, the universal applicability of the model was questioned when Burns and Stalker (1961) proposed the idea that different approaches to structuring organizations might have differential effectiveness under varying conditions. This concept signaled the decline of the classical theory and established the foundations for the contingency approach
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