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The effect of human relations-sensitivity training on the self concept of low income high school students



Graduation date: 1979The principle purpose of this study was to determine\ud the effectiveness of human relations-sensitivity training on\ud the self concept of low income high school students. The\ud sample group consisted of 47 low income high school students\ud attending the 1978 Summer Upward Bound program at Oregon\ud State University. Participants were randomly selected for\ud placement into one of five groups. The sample was further\ud refined by stratifying for the variables of race and sex.\ud Stratification reduces the probability of sampling error due\ud to a lack of homogeneity within the sample.\ud The research design was composed of four treatment\ud groups and one control group. Over a period of five consecutive\ud weeks, all groups participated in a total of 15\ud hours of a group experience. The groups met for two, one\ud and one-half hour sessions during each of the five weeks.\ud Groups I and II were designated as the structured human\ud relations groups. The structured format involved the use\ud of specific activities designed to enhance self concept.\ud Groups III and IV were identified as the unstructured\ud groups. These groups emphasized a lack of structured\ud activities by the facilitators. The focus was oriented\ud toward facilitating the ongoing experience of the group.\ud Group V consisted of one large control group. The group\ud was designed as a control for the Upward Bound effect. The\ud members participated in the regular recreational-cultural\ud activity program that Upward Bound organizes during the\ud summer program.\ud Co-facilitators were randomly assigned to the treatment\ud groups by blocking for the sex of the leader. Each\ud group of facilitators participated in a three hour orientation-\ud training session which trained them for their treatment\ud method. An expectational set was introduced by\ud telling the leaders that the treatment method they were\ud involved in had demonstrated consistently higher outcomes\ud as compared to other group methods. All sessions were\ud taped to ensure that the leaders were indeed emitting responses\ud within the parameters of each treatment condition.\ud The subjects in the experiment were administered the\ud Tennessee Self Concept Scale as a pretest measurement just\ud prior to the group experience. Immediately following the\ud 15 hours of group meetings, the subjects were administered\ud the same standardized instrument. Both administrations\ud were conducted under conditions approximating each measurement.\ud The null hypothesis to be tested was as follows:\ud H0- There is no significant difference for posttteesstt\ud mean scores among Group I (structured),\ud Group II (structured), Group III (unstructured),\ud Group IV (unstructured), and Group V (control)\ud on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS)\ud (Counseling Form).\ud Analysis of Covariance was utilized to test for the\ud significance of hypothesis one. Three scales of the TSCS\ud were found to be statistically different. Ho was rejected\ud on the following scales: Total Positive Score,\ud Self Satisfaction, and Social Self. Where F ratios proved\ud significant, multiple t comparison tests were used to\ud analyze significant differences between the mean scores.\ud All the treatment groups (Groups I-IV) were found to\ud be significantly different than the control (Group V) on\ud the Social Self Scale of the TSCS.\ud Group III (unstructured) scored significantly higher\ud than Groups I and II (structured) and Group V (control)\ud for the Total Positive Score and the Self Satisfaction\ud Scale of the TSCS.\ud From the analysis of the data the researcher developed\ud the following conclusions:\ud 1) Human relations-sensitivity training is an effective\ud method of enhancing the self concept of low income\ud high school students.\ud 2) In this investigation, unstructured groups appear to\ud produce higher member outcomes as compared to groups\ud employing the use of structured activities.\ud 3) Three variables were identified as central to the\ud process of participant change: leader behaviors,\ud functional roles of members, and the development of\ud norms.\ud 4) Some scales of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale may\ud not be amenable to change within the 5 week treatment\ud period

Year: 1979
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Provided by: ScholarsArchive@OSU

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