Abstract only.A new conceptualization of sustainability in fisheries is emerging from much broader developments in natural resource management. In its modern form, "resilience" has become a powerful metaphor for sustainable development but advances in theory have yet to be translated into more resilient aquatic ecosystems or better lives for poor fisherfolk in developing countries. The challenge to utilize resilience theory in the management and governance of SSF is an important frontier for development science: more than half the world's\ud fish are caught in SSF and most fishers in the world live in developing countries. As complex systems, these fisheries exemplify the dynamic and unpredictable interdependencies of people and nature. Fisherfolk in SSF are vulnerable to the compounding effects of stresses within fishery systems as well as ecological and social forces outside their domain of influence. Building adaptive capacity in ecosystems and people is central to realizing the conservation, social and economic potential of SSF in the developing world. In this paper discuss the resilience concept with particular reference to SSF in the developing world and seek linkages with established frameworks for analysis and management
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