This is the author's peer-reviewed final manuscript, as accepted by the publisher. The published article is copyrighted by Springer and can be found at: http://www.springer.com/psychology/cognitive+psychology/journal/13423.Do word frequency and case mixing affect different processing stages in visual word\ud recognition? Some studies of on line reading suggests that word frequency affects an earlier\ud perceptual, encoding stage and case mixing affects a later central, decision stage (e.g., Reingold,\ud Yang, & Rayner, 2010). Others have suggested otherwise (e.g., Allen, Smith, Lien, Grabbe, &\ud Murphy, 2005; Besner & McCann, 1987). To determine the locus of word frequency and case\ud mixing effects, we manipulated word frequency (high vs. low) and case type (consistent\ud lowercase vs. mixing case in a lexical-decision paradigm. We measured two event-related\ud potential components: the N170 (an early peak occurring 140-240 ms after stimulus onset,\ud related to structural encoding) and the P3 (a late peak occurring 400-600 ms after stimulus onset,\ud related to stimulus categorization). The critical finding is that the N170 amplitude was sensitive\ud to case mixing, but the P3 amplitude was sensitive to word frequency and lexicality. These\ud results suggest that case mixing affects an earlier processing stage than word frequency, at least\ud with respect to lexical-decision processes
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