Location of Repository

An examination of the relationship among TARGET structures, team motivational climate, and achievement goal orientation



Graduation date: 1995Current research on sport motivation has focused primarily on\ud goal perspective approaches in an attempt to understand behavior in\ud achievement situations (Ames, 1984; Nicholls, 1984). According to\ud Nicholls' (1984) theory, the achievement goal orientation an\ud individual develops may be influenced by both individual differences\ud and situational factors.\ud Relative to situational factors, the team motivational climate\ud may promote either a task-involved or an ego-involved orientation\ud dependent upon which goal orientation is emphasized by the coach.\ud In addition, Ames (1992a) argued that environmental structures\ud influence the motivational climate which ultimately impact the\ud athlete's achievement orientation. Educational research (Epstein,\ud 1988) has identified specific environmental structures (TARGET\ud structures) as being salient to the development of a mastery\ud climate.\ud Little research has been conducted on athletes' perceptions of\ud their coaches' behavior, in regard to specific environmental\ud structures, and how this may ultimately influence athletes'\ud achievement goal orientation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to\ud examine the relationship among TARGET structures, team\ud motivational climate, and achievement goal orientation.\ud The subjects consisted of 186 high school softball players and 171 high school baseball players, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. The TEOSQ, PMCSQ, and TARGET questionnaires were administered to subjects at the beginning of a sport practice.\ud LISREL8, a structural equation modeling program, was the statistical analysis employed. Results indicated that a positive linear relationship existed, linking task and reward/evaluation components of the TARGET structures to mastery climate to task orientation. These two structures may be the most salient structures within a sport setting. This finding suggests there is a positive association between coaches' promotion and employment of task-involved goals in their practices and athletes' perception of a mastery-oriented team motivational climate. Direct relationships linking three TARGET structures to performance climate to ego orientation were also reported. Grouping and authority components\ud of the TARGET structures were found to have a significant inverse relationship with performance climate, while task structure and performance climate were positively related. Additionally, the results confirmed that there was a significant positive relationship between mastery climate and task orientation and between performance climate and ego orientation

Year: 1994
OAI identifier: oai:ir.library.oregonstate.edu:1957/35303
Provided by: ScholarsArchive@OSU

Suggested articles



  1. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis.
  2. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality.
  3. (1993). A social-cognitive approach to understanding children's achievement behavior. cognitions. and affect in competitive sport. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  4. (1977). A system for the behavioral assessment of athletic coaches.
  5. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation processes.
  6. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes.
  7. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance.
  8. (1981). Achievement orientations and sport behavior of males and females. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  9. (1985). Adolescents' theories of education.
  10. (1990). Assessing students' theories of success in mathematics: Individual and classroom differences.
  11. (1992). Children's achievement goals and beliefs about success in sport.
  12. (1990). Children's perceptions of classroom goal structure and related motivational processes. Unpublished master's thesis,
  13. (1994). Children's task and ego goal profiles in sport.
  14. (1986). Classroom context of student-perceived differential teacher treatment.
  15. (1984). Classroom factors affecting students' self-evaluations: An interactional model. Review of Educational Psychology.
  16. (1992). Classroom learning and motivation: Clarifying and expanding goal theory.
  17. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation.
  18. (1979). Coach effectiveness training: A cognitive-behavorial approach to enhancing relationship skills in youth sport coaches.
  19. (1985). Coaches' feedback and changes in children's perceptions of their physical competence.
  20. (1978). Coaching behaviors in little league baseball. In
  21. (1951). Coefficient alpha and internal structure of tests.
  22. (1984). Competitive, cooperative, and individualistic goal structures: A cognitive-motivational analysis.
  23. (1993). Correlates of goal orientation among young athletes. Pediatric Exercise Science,
  24. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport.
  25. (1980). Dimensions of leader behavior in sports: Development of a leadership scale.
  26. (1984). Discrepancy between preferences and perceptions of leadership behavior and satisfaction of athletes in varying sports.
  27. (1988). Effective schools or effective students: Dealing with diversity.
  28. (1993). Elite adolescent athletes' achievement goals and beliefs concerning success in tennis.
  29. (1989). Family structures and student motivation: A developmental perspective. In
  30. (1992). Goal orientations and beliefs about the causes of sport success among elite skiers. The Sport Psychologists, E,
  31. (1989). Goal perspectives, participation and persistence in sport.
  32. (1993). Goals: A social cognitive approach to the study of achievement motivation in sport. In
  33. (1989). Individual differences in academic motivation: Perceived ability, goals, beliefs, and values.
  34. (1993). Interdependencies between the perceived and self-reported goal orientations of young athletes and their parents. Pediatric Exercise Science,
  35. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the Simplis command language. Chicago: Scientific
  36. (1984). Meaning and motivation.
  37. (1987). Motivating students to learn: An experiment in junior high social studies classes
  38. (1992). Motivation in sport and exercise: Conceptual constraints and convergence.
  39. (1992). Motivation in sport settings: A goal perspective approach. In
  40. (1993). Motivation in sport: Understanding and enhancing the motivation and achievement of children. In
  41. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning.
  42. (1989). Personal investment in the rehabilitation of athletic injuries.
  43. (1990). Reducing effort to protect perceived ability: "They'd do it but wouldn't"
  44. (1992). Sport socialization. In
  45. (1988). Structural equation modeling in Practice: A review and recommendated two-step approach.
  46. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables.
  47. (1982). Student perceptions of better readers in elementary classrooms.
  48. (1990). Successful coaching.
  49. (1984). Systems of student and teacher motivation: Toward a qualitative definition.
  50. (1979). Tasks and social relationships in classrooms. New York:
  51. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education.
  52. (1991). The development of the perception of success questionnaire.
  53. (1990). The effects of participation orientation and success-failure on post-competitive affect in young athletes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  54. (1984). The formation of ability conceptions: Developmental trend or social construction?
  55. (1992). The general and the specific in the development and expression of achievement motivation.
  56. (1986). The influence of leader behaviors, coach attributes, and institutional variables onperformance and satisfaction of collegiate basketball teams.
  57. (1993). The perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire: Construct and predictive validity.
  58. (1992). The relationship among perceived coaching behaviors, perceptions of ability, and motivation in competitive age-group swimmers.
  59. (1988). The relationship between goal perspectives and persistence and intensity among recreational sport participants. Leisure Sciences,
  60. (1989). The relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes.
  61. (1992). The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and beliefs about success in basketball.
  62. (1990). The relationship of task and ego orientation and expectations to multidimensional state anxiety. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Society for the Psychology of sport and Physical Activity,
  63. (1991). The relationship of task and ego orientation to sportsmanship attitudes and the perceived legitimacy of aggressive acts. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,
  64. (1991). The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire: Psychometric properties. Manuscript submitted for publication.
  65. (1988). Theories of education among academically precocious adolescents.
  66. (1988). Your role as a coach. In

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.