(1997). (v) Data on ethnic groups can be aggregated at various levels (Modood
0.187, ns Hindu-Gujerati Hindu-Other Muslim Sikh-Punjabi
(1992). 22.214.171.124 African Americans In the USA there has long been evidence of low levels of participation in FOBt screening by African Americans, especially older members of the population (Boring
(1983). 126.96.36.199 Protocol The survey protocol recommended by Dillman
4 A new version due for completion in 2003 will distinguish other groups e.g.
A major evaluation of the Pilot was commissioned in 1999. The brief of the main Evaluation Group was to produce an independent report for the Department of Health on the outcomes of screening in the Pilot.
(1991). Assessment of the psychological impact of a breast screening programme.
(1991). CANCER SCREENING We identified only one UK evaluation of an intervention to improve uptake of cervical screening by ethnic minority women. This is a very early
Cancer statistics for African Americans.
(1991). Census data reveals that people from South Asian ethnic groups have a very strong tendency to cluster together, with marked geographical separation from other ethnic groups (Peach,
(1991). Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot are shown in Table 6.2.2. A second approach (Model 2) utilised
Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot Table 6.2.4: Relationship of uptake rate to characteristics of invited persons Independent variables Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Error Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
(1994). Computer-Based vs. Manual Health Maintenance Tracking: A controlled trial.
(1995). Department of Health’s requirement for mandatory collection of data on ethnic group of inpatients
(1994). Dietary intervention in primary care: validity of the DINE method for diet assessment.
(1997). Distressed or relieved? Psychological side effects of breast cancer screening in the Netherlands.
(1996). Does Britain have ghettos?’,
(1999). Ethnic Statistics: Better than Nothing or Worse than Nothing? Standard categories of ethnicity are often not appropriate",
Ethnicity: UK Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot Table 3.2.3 Overall comparison of survey participants and survey non-participants.
(1991). Figure 1.3.1: Minority composition of Coventry and Warwickshire districts,
(1991). Figure 3.1.5: GP practices and the minority share of ward populations Rugbyyyy Nuneatonttt Leamingtonii ti ti tiiii Stratfordtr tf rtr tf rtr tf r GP practicei r cticii r ctici r cticAsian GP practice Minority ethnic groups percentage of population,
(1987). Focus Group Interview: an underutilized research technique for improving theory and practice in health education’
(1990). Implementation preventative services: Success and failure in an outpatient trial.
(1991). Inappropriate use of the term Asian - an obstacle to ethnicity and health research’
(2002). Interventions targeted at women to encourage the uptake of cervical screening.
(1998). It’s Our Health Too: Asian men’s health perspectives Southern Birmingham Community Health
(1978). Mail and telephone surveys: the total design method.
(1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Selfevaluation questionnaire). Palto Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. UK Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot (nd) Information Pack for Professionals Rugby: NHS Screening Programmes
(2002). Nip it in the Bud’: Breast Screening Uptake and Women from Marginalised Communities, Liverpool: Centre for Health Environment and Wellbeing,
(1927). No response Returned Complete Returned Blank Unavailable Total
(1992). On the State of the Public Health for the Year
(1990). One study indicates that a patient letter may be more cost-effective than a physician reminder (Belcher
(1990). Predictors of older adults' participation in fecal occult blood screening. Oncology Nursing Forum
(1992). professional perceptions and poor communication. For breast cancer screening, two early papers
(1994). Race ethnicity culture and science’
(1996). Randomised control trial of faecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer.
(2003). Recent changes in lung cancer incidence for south Asians: a population based register study’
Result 2119 (240) Kit Returned 82746 (2525) Invitees (with 3 months follow up) 139850 (7469) Strong Positive 171 (8) Positive 98 (22) Further
(1996). Reviews of ethnicity and health York: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination
(2001). ROLL-OUT: LIKELY CRC SCREENING UPTAKES The first breakdowns of
(1990). Society. Cancer in the socioeconomically disadvantaged.
(1991). Stratford Stratford Stratford GP practice GP practice GP practice GP practice GP practice GP practice GP practice GP practice Asian GP practice Minority ethnic groups percentage of population,
(2001). Systematic review of ethnicity and health service access for London.
(2001). Table 1.3.1: Categories of ethnic group recorded in the UK Censuses of 1991 and
(2002). Table 3.1.1: Number of Subjects at Key Stages of CRC Screening Process Number A. Population covered as of
(2002). Table 4.1.1: Number of Subjects at Key Stages of CRC Colonoscopy Process Number A. Population covered as of
(2000). Table 4.1.2: Uptake of Colonoscopy (allowing at least three months from FOBt positive test result) by Demographic and Ethnic Factors Demographic/ Ethnic Factor Number Uptake (%)
Table 4.1.3: Distribution of FOBt Positives Considered to be Defaulters by Reason (Based on English Pilot Site Nurse Records) Current Status Reason for defaulting Asian Non-Asian All Number %
Table 6.2.2: Model 1 – Deprivation and country of birth Independent variables (derived from 1991 Census of Population) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Error Standardized Coefficients t Sig. (Constant)
Table 6.2.3: Model 2- Deprivation and ethnic group Independent variables (derived from 1991 Census of Population) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. Error Standardized Coefficients t Sig. (Constant) 60.339
(1990). Task force on Minority Health. Closing the gap: a call for action.
(2000). The Pilot sites were commissioned in 1999, and were required to undertake all of the necessary developmental work to commence screening in early 2000. The Scottish Pilot site commenced screening in
(2003). The prediction of uptake rates in other parts of the UK has been largely based on 1991 Census of Population data, since detailed data from the 2001 Census was not available at the time of writing this report
(1971). The Urban Mosaic: towards a theory of residential differentiation (Cambridge:
(1992). The use of ethnicity and race in health research: a cautionary note’
(1992). There are many ways of defining an ‘ethnic minority’ (Pringle et al 1997), and there has been considerable debate and controversy about the categories in use within the NHS (Bhopal 1991, Ahmad, Sheldon and Stuart 1996, Sheldon and Parker
(1990). Three strategies to promote cancer screening: How feasible is wide-scale implementation.
(2001). USED Data used for the extrapolations were taken from the 1991 and
(1997). Using focus group methodology to develop breast cancer screening programs that recruit African American women’