Fondazione Edmund Mach

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    11855 research outputs found

    FSC forest certification effects on biodiversity: A global review and meta-analysis

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    FSC is a worldwide recognized forest certification scheme, that aims to promote the environmentally responsible management and conservation of the world's forests. Despite its broad application, there is little evidence of its effect on biodiversity. To address this important knowledge gap, here we conducted a systematic review and a hierarchical meta-analysis of the effects of FSC on biodiversity worldwide. Our review yielded 57 studies spanning 2004–2022. Most studies were in the Americas and Europe (31 % and 28 %, respectively), and largely focused on vascular plants (41 %). Half (51 %) of the studies aimed to determine the effect of FSC certification on biodiversity. There were 15 studies with sufficient information for meta-analysis, resulting in 231 effect sizes for mammal, bird, and vascular plant abundance and 10 for vascular plant richness. Overall, there is a neutral effect of certification on taxa abundance, with only a positive effect on mammal assemblages. Responses varied considerably between mammals' traits. Threatened species, individuals with reduced body weight, and omnivorous species benefit from management under the FSC scheme. Vascular plant richness exhibited significantly higher values in FSC-certified areas. Moreover, the abundance of vascular plants also differs among traits, with shrubs and adult trees benefiting from FSC certification. Our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed strong variation in biodiversity responses to FSC, and major geographic and taxonomic knowledge gaps. The overall neutral effect and the divergent responses of taxa and species traits suggest that taxa/species-specific management and improvement of FSC criteria are require

    Effect of postharvest treatments on physiological disorders of ‘Galant’: a new scab resistant apple cultivar

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    The present work focuses on the promising scab resistant apple cultivar ‘Galant’ (Lumaga A 913) which shows great interest as a suitable cultivar for organic production but little is known about its postharvest storage. Experiments performed by the Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM) from 2015 to 2017 show a complex of different physiological disorders affecting this apple: superficial scald, flesh browning, browning of the skin and underlying flesh (soft scald and soggy breakdown). Here, we present the results of different postharvest treatments applied in order to avoid fruit injury, including initial low oxygen stress conditions (ILOS) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application. Superficial scald symptoms commonly appeared on less mature fruits but the production of α-farnesene and its volatile oxidation products which are involved in the process are inhibited by using ILOS technology which kept the disorder under 4% disease incidence in comparison with controlled atmosphere (CA) with 35% after 180 d storage and 15 d shelf life. On the other hand, both ILOS and CA storage do not affect the incidence of internal browning and the incidence rates were always >60% after 14 d shelf-life. Based on the flesh browning disorders, the storability of ‘Galant’ was always limited to <180 d. The incidence of superficial scald and flesh browning were similar in both 1-MCP treated and untreated apple

    Complexity of the effects of pre-fermentation oxygenation, skin contact and use of pectolytic enzymes in white winemaking as revealed by comprehensive proteomics and volatilomics analysis

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    Ion exchange chromatography and SDS-PAGE followed by identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS) were used for comprehensive proteomics and volatilomics evaluation of the effects of pre-fermentative oxygenation, skin contact and use of pectolytic enzymes in production of Malvazija istarska white wine, respectively. Many protein species and an unprecedented number of volatiles have been identified and (semi)quantified, revealing high complexity of the observed effects. Compared to a standard control wine, oxygenation treatment modulated the protein composition and resulted with a volatilome characterized by decreased levels of several important volatiles. Skin contact treatments, especially in combination with pectolytic enzymes, significantly increased the levels of a large number of proteins, but were also deprived of particular protein species found in other wines. Wines obtained by skin contact with exogenous enzymes exhibited the most complex volatile composition with increased levels of many key monoterpenoids, alcohols and esters

    Early detection of acrolein precursors in vegetable oils by using proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry

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    Acrolein is a toxic volatile compound derived from oxidative processes, that can be formed in foods during storage and cooking. This study employs proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to detect acrolein precursors in vegetable oils by focusing on the m/z (mass-to-charge ratio) 57. To this purpose, hempseed, sesame, walnut, olive and linseed oils were stored for 168 h at 60 ◦C in presence of 2,2′-azobis(2-metilpropionitrile) (3 mM) radicals initiator. The evolution of m/z 57 by PTR-MS was also compared with traditional lipid oxidation indicators such as peroxide value, conjugated diene, oxygen consumption and, isothermal calorimetry. The obtained results were explained by the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of the oils. Hempseed fresh oil presented a very low total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) intensity (5.6 kncps). Nonetheless, after storage the intensity increased ~70 times. A principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the potential of m/z 57 to differentiate fresh versus rancid hempseed oil sample. During an autoxidation experiment oils high in linolenic and linoleic acids showed higher m/z 57 emissions and shorter induction times: linseed oil (38 h) > walnut oil (47 h) > hempseed oil (80 h). The m/z 57 emission presented a high correlation coefficient with the total VOC signal (r > 0.95), conjugated dienes and headspace oxygen consumption. A PCA analysis showed a complete separation of the fresh oils on the first component (most significant) with the exception of olive oil. Walnut, hempseed and linseed oil were placed on the extreme right nearby total VOCs and m/z 57. The results obtained highlight the potential of PTR-MS for the early detection of oil autoxidation, serving as a quality control tool for potential acrolein precursor emissions, thereby enhancing food safety in the industr

    The post-diapause vibrational behavior, motility, and survival of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål) adults at different temperatures

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    Substrate-borne vibrational communication is common in pentatomids. Although several works exist on the vibrational communication of Halyomorpha halys, its vibrational behavior post diapause has not been investigated. In this study, we recorded H. halys overwintered adults using laser doppler vibrometers at three temperatures: 10 °C (inactivity), 18 °C (breaking of diapause), and 25 °C (peak of mating activity). The aim was to assess the effect of temperature on the signaling, motility, and survival of H. halys. The insects were sexed into different cages and recorded separately or joined with a cage of the opposite sex. We calculated the total time spent on signaling and walking per replica. The males predominantly emitted male signal 1 (MS1) throughout the four months of recordings. The females exclusively emitted female signal 2 (FS2) when joined with the opposite sex cage the first two months of recordings. Interestingly, they also started FS2 signaling when recorded separately, after two months. No signaling was recorded at 10 °C. At 25 °C, the signaling latency time before vibrational signaling was 24 h compared to 23 days at 18 °C. The short latency time at 25 °C correlated with a higher death rate in early stages of recording. Male walking activity was significantly higher in joined cages at 18 °C and 25 °C, suggesting the increased searching behavior near the opposite sex. Overwintered H. halys could adapt to different conditions whereas low temperatures maintain the diapause which is characterized by no signaling activity. Our results provide a foundation for bioclimatic modeling of climate change effects on H. halys and insights into the use of vibrational playbacks for mass trapping and monitoring as control technique

    Tracking the transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes from raw materials to sourdough breads

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    The present study hypothesizes that raw materials used in bread making can transfer antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to processed breads. Four types of flour and four types of semolina were purchased from supermarkets and inoculated with a commercial dried sourdough starter to make breads. The microbiological characteristics of all raw materials and fermented doughs were investigated. The levels of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased up to 107 CFU/g. The values of pH decreased to 4.54–4.86 while total titratable acidity increased inversely. All unprocessed and processed samples, including breads, were analyzed by a molecular approach to detect bacterial and fungal DNAs and 17 antibiotic resistance genes for penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines, and chloramphenicol. Illumina technology showed that the operational taxonomy units (OTUs) identified from unprocessed wheat milling products, fermented doughs, and baked products mainly belonged to Acetobacteraceae. Enterococci were present in all doughs. After baking, the relative abundance (RA)% of Enterococcus and Acetobacteraceae decreased. The DNA analyzed for fungal composition showed that Kazachstania humilis dominated dried sourdough starter and doughs, and its OTUs were also detected at high RA% in baked products. The search for ARGs revealed that all samples analyzed did not show resistance to penicillins, chloramphenicol, and macrolides. However, three of the semolinas included in this study (S1, S3 and S4) and the corresponding doughs (SD1, SD3 and SD4) were positive for tet(A) and tet(B) resistance genes. This work indicated that breads have a limited role in the dissemination of ARG

    Using stable carbon isotope ratio analysis to detect adulteration in red yeast rice dietary supplements

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    Red yeast rice (RYR) is marketed as a dietary supplement because it contains natural 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), including monacolin K. However, there is concern that some RYR supplements may be adulterated with the pharmaceutical drug lovastatin to enhance health claims. We have developed an optimized method to isolate monacolin K/lovastatin from complex RYR dietary supplement matrices to then test for adulteration in RYR supplements using stable carbon isotope (δ13C) analysis. Samples were initially screened for monacolin K/lovastatin using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS). To ensure the extraction process did not affect the measured isotopic values (i.e., isotopic fractionation effects), neat lovastatin standards were spiked into two types of blank RYR matrices (powder and gel). The monacolin K/lovastatin peaks were detected using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) and isolated using fraction collection. Residual matrix components were removed from targeted fractions by solid phase extraction (SPE) using graphitized carbon black cartridges. The resulting isolates were then analyzed using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) to measure δ13C values. The δ13C values of the extracted lovastatin standards were compared to their respective neat lovastatin δ13C values and demonstrated negligible isotopic fractionation effects. Using this optimized clean up method and carbon isotope analysis, thirty-one samples were screened. Eight RYR dietary supplement samples had >0.8 mg/g of monacolin K/lovastatin, our minimum threshold for analyzing samples using this method. Four of these eight samples had δ13C values greater than -28.3‰, a previously proposed cutoff value for natural monacolin K, indicating likely adulteration. Additionally, five RYR powder samples were analyzed as part of a collaborative study using in-house methods from two laboratories and the data shows acceptable agreement in the δ13C values of monacolin K/lovastatin (differences ranging from ±0.02‰ to ±0.76‰). This optimized method represents a robust, reproducible procedure for detecting lovastatin adulteration in dietary supplements with minimal isotopic fractionation

    Natura magistra

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    High habitat richness reduces the risk of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe: a multi-scale study

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    Background The natural transmission cycle of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is enhanced by complex interactions between ticks and key hosts strongly connected to habitat characteristics. The diversity of wildlife host species and their relative abundance is known to affect transmission of tick-borne diseases. Therefore, in the current context of global biodiversity loss, we explored the relationship between habitat richness and the pattern of human TBE cases in Europe to assess biodiversity's role in disease risk mitigation. Methods We assessed human TBE case distribution across 879 European regions using official epidemiological data reported to The European Surveillance System (TESSy) between 2017 and 2021 from 15 countries. We explored the relationship between TBE presence and the habitat richness index (HRI1) by means of binomial regression. We validated our findings at local scale using data collected between 2017 and 2021 in 227 municipalities located in Trento and Belluno provinces, two known TBE foci in northern Italy. Findings Our results showed a significant parabolic effect of HRI on the probability of presence of human TBE cases in the European regions included in our dataset, and a significant, negative effect of HRI on the local presence of TBE in northern Italy. At both spatial scales, TBE risk decreases in areas with higher values of HRI. Interpretation To our knowledge, no efforts have yet been made to explore the relationship between biodiversity and TBE risk, probably due to the scarcity of high-resolution, large-scale data about the abundance or density of critical host species. Hence, in this study we considered habitat richness as proxy for vertebrate host diversity. The results suggest that in highly diverse habitats TBE risk decreases. Hence, biodiversity loss could enhance TBE risk for both humans and wildlife. This association is relevant to support the hypothesis that the maintenance of highly diverse ecosystems mitigates disease ris

    Classes Copepoda and Ichthyostraca

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