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    Belgium’s successful ride on the elephant? : the diverging effects of high homeownership rates on inequalities

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    Published online: 23 Jun 2023This paper studies the contradictory effects of pro-homeownership policies on inequalities through the case of Belgium. While the literature describes high homeownership rates as levellers of wealth inequalities, this paper finds, using national microdata from ECHP and EU-SILC, that different mechanisms underlying homeownership growth have had contradictory effects on economic inequalities, even in the absence of a housing crisis or increase in income inequalities. Inequalities in the weight of rental costs have risen for newly contracted rental agreements in the last decade, while wealth inequalities are rising because of an increasingly exclusive mortgage-credit market. Current measurements of wealth inequalities are based on the distribution of net wealth, thereby missing the evolution of the difference between mean wealth and no wealth and the dynamic nature of wealth accumulation. Therefore, inequalities are rising in Belgium as poorer renters are increasingly constrained by rental costs when they are increasingly excluded from accessing homeownership

    AT (en)large : capturing the voice of citizens through citizens’ assemblies on the EU level

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    Views and opinions expressed are however those of the author(s) only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or the European Education and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA). Neither the European Union nor EACEA can be held responsible for them.This policy brief discusses citizens’ assemblies (CA) as a way of deepening and improving public engagement in political decision-making at the EU level. While commending the EU for using citizens’ assemblies in an unparalleled way during the Conference on the Future of Europe (CoFoE), it demonstrates that the first CAs held on the EU level after CoFoE indicate that the EU institutions are still keen to keep strong control over the process and results of citizens’ assemblies. The brief argues the EU needs time to develop more confidence and a better understanding of the potential of CAs to further democratise EU institutions and their decision-making process. Albeit they are no panacea for all the intricated problems of contemporary polity, CAs qualify among the best candidates to help increase the trust in and legitimacy of strategic decisions on the EU level. This policy brief recommends having CAs on EU enlargement with citizens from both current member states and candidate countries. Enlargement is a great candidate for citizens’ assemblies due to its rich deliberative potential, derived from conflicting understandings and arguments of whether, how and when should the EU accept new members. Having citizens’ assemblies on enlargement would be an exemplary showcase of the EU’s commitment to inclusive, participatory, and deliberative democracy, and a strong statement of EU institutions’ willingness to fully consider the opinion of their constituencies.Funded by the European Union

    Financial markets implications of the energy transition : carbon content of energy use in listed companies

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    Published online: 22 January 2024Decarbonization is often misunderstood in financial studies. Furthermore, its implications for investment opportunities and growth are even less known. The study investigates the link between energy indicators and Tobin’s Quotient (TQ) in listed companies globally, finding that the carbon content of energy presents a negative yet modest effect on financial performance. Furthermore, we investigated the effect carbon prices in compliance markets have on TQ for exempted and non-exempt firms, finding that Energy efficiency measures yield greater effects in the latter group. Conversely, it is also true that carbon prices marginally reduce TQ more in non-exempt firms. This implies that auction mechanisms create burdens that companies are eager to relinquish by reducing emissions. However, reducing GHG yields positive effects on TQ only as long as it results in energy efficiency improvements

    How global is international mobility?

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    Published online: January 2024How global is international mobility? The answer to this short question has—despite its seeming simplicity—been obscured by how the issue of international mobility was treated in parts of the social sciences. There has been a tendency, particularly in globalization research, to argue that physical space has a lessening or even vanishing role in structuring human activity and that all international mobility tends to be global. For example, in the 1970s, Toffler (1970: 91) talked about the “demise of geography”, alleging that in contrast to the nomads of the past who were bound by place, “the new nomads of today leave the physical structure behind”. Similarly, Held and McGrew (2003: 3) argued that “the constraints of social time and geographical space, vital coordinates of modern social life, no longer appear to impose insuperable barriers to many forms of social interaction or organization”. Numerous other terms, such as “time-space compression” (Harvey 1989), “collapse of space” (Kirsch 1995), “shrinking world” (Allen and Hamnett 1995), “deterritorialization” (Appadurai 1996), “collapse of time and distance” (Koehn and Rosenau 2002: 105), and “increasing emancipation from space” (Schroer 2006) have been proposed to describe the very matter

    Teaching international economic law in the 21st century

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    Published online: 18 December 2023This book contribution explains why international economic law (IEL) is increasingly taught from diverse, national and regional perspectives and value premises (I). IEL courses should focus on the common regulatory objectives, instruments and legal methodology challenges of IEL (II) and on how the ‘embedded liberalism’ underlying UN and WTO law promotes non-discriminatory ‘regulatory competition’ and diversity of national and regional IEL systems (III). The post-1945 ‘embedded liberalism compromise’ needs to be adjusted to the global environmental, health and sustainable development challenges and to the need for stronger protection of transnational rule-of-law in world trade, investment and environmental law and governance. Without maintaining the compulsory WTO dispute settlement system and investment and human rights adjudication, the citizen-oriented ‘sustainable development goals’ cannot realize their human rights objectives (IV).The chapter is a published version of EUI Law WP 2021/0

    Interdisciplinarity and international economic law

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    Published: 28 July 2024As the international economic law field developed and institutionalized during the 1990s and 2000s, interdisciplinary work on the subject proliferated. Many legal scholars turned to disciplinary methods beyond the traditional study of doctrine, constituting part of a “new legal realist” turn in scholarship. This essay addresses interdisciplinary work on international economic law by explaining the use of different methods within disciplines and giving examples of different substantive areas. Such work casts important light on how international economic law is made, why it is made, and the conditions under which it has effects

    Migration, citizenship, and post-national membership

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    Published online: 30 December 2022Migration – as the movement of people from one location to another with the aim of settling in the place of their destination – is possibly as old as humankind itself. The nature and causes of migration evolved tremendously over the course of human history. While some causes such as resource scarcity, climate change, and conflict persist to this date, globalisation of economies has generated new ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors that drive contemporary migration. As a result of the engagements between societies, economies, and cultures from human movement across geographical spaces, the study of contemporary migration is inextricably related to the questions of identity, social and cultural integration, and diversity. This chapter maps the core issues related to the causes and outcomes of migration, relates them to the cultural and political construction of nations and states through the notion of citizenship, and discusses the meaning of ‘post-national’ membership. In so doing, it highlights how international migration has reconceptualised the notions of membership and belonging, which are no longer confined to territorial borders of nation-states and no longer representative of single and singular cultural communities

    Art. 26. Monitorowanie obowiazków i srodków

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    Published: 29 December 202

    How intelligence tales are made real : Le Bureau des légendes as a cover story for the French DGSE

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    Published online: 02 Jun 2023The French spy series Le Bureau des légendes (2015–2020) has been acclaimed for its allegedly realistic depiction of French foreign intelligence. Drawing on the concept of ‘legend’, this article adapts actornetwork theory to understand how Le Bureau was able to make a significant impact on public discussions of secret intelligence in France. The article shows how the series, was constituted as a ‘virtually true’ cover story for the Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure (DGSE), which supported the series’ production, and how this story impacted the DGSE itself

    The reverse backlash : how the success of populist radical right parties relates to more positive immigration attitudes

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    Published online: 12 December 2023What is the relationship between the electoral success of populist radical right parties (PRRPs) and public attitudes toward immigration? Previous research suggests that PRRP success can lead to more negative attitudes due to the breaking down of antiprejudice norms and more prominent anti-immigration party cues. However, we argue that greater PRRP success could have a positive relationship with immigration attitudes, reflecting negative partisanship, polarization, and a desire to reemphasize antiprejudice norms, which we call a “reverse backlash effect.” Using the best available electoral and public opinion data across the last thirty years in twenty-four European countries, our TSCS analyses show the predominance of such “reverse backlash effects” across several operationalizations of PRRP success. Our argument has important consequences for the understanding of possible PRRP effects on public opinion, as well as attitudinal formation via party cueing and social norms more generally


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