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    Pharmacy vending machines in Slovenia: Current state of affairs and key stakeholders\u27 opinions

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    Lekarniški prodajni avtomati so v zadnjih letih postali vse bolj razširjeni in predstavljajo dodatno možnost prodaje in dostopa do lekarniških izdelkov, saj praviloma omogočajo hitrejšo storitev, ki je dostopna 24 ur na dan vse dni v tednu, in hkrati anonimnost nakupa. V nekaterih državah se prek njih prodajajo tudi zdravila. Namen magistrske naloge je bil narediti pregled nad stanjem lekarniških prodajnih avtomatov v Sloveniji ter v zvezi z njimi pridobiti vpogled v stališča ključnih deležnikov do prednosti in slabosti s posebnim poudarkom na možnosti izdaje zdravil prek njih. V okviru raziskave smo izvedli devet intervjujev, ki so vključevali tri lekarniške farmacevte, dva predstavnika regulatornih organov, farmacevtskih društev in sindikatov ter štiri uporabnike lekarniških storitev. Dodatne udeležence smo vključevali do nasičenja pridobljenih informacij. Od intervjuvancev smo želeli izvedeti, kakšne izkušnje imajo z lekarniškimi prodajnimi avtomati, kakšno je njihovo splošno mnenje o njih, v čem vidijo njihove prednosti in slabosti, prav tako pa smo želeli pridobiti njihovo podrobnejše mnenje o možnosti izdaje zdravil prek takih avtomatov. Intervjuje smo posneli, transkribirali ter jih kvalitativno analizirali v programu NVivo 11 Pro. Na podlagi intervjujev smo kodirali zapise ter jih razdelili na teme in podteme. Pozitivni pogled udeležencev na uporabo lekarniških prodajnih avtomatov in nakup zdravil prek njih je bil največkrat povezan s hitrejšo storitvijo in možnostjo dostopa do izdelkov in zdravil 24 ur na dan vse dni v letu. Pogosto se je omenjala tudi razbremenitev farmacevta in možnost posvetitve časa drugim zadolžitvam. Negativni pogled udeležencev se je najpogosteje kazal v možnosti zlorabe ali nepravilne rabe zdravil, pridobljenih prek lekarniških prodajnih avtomatov, ter v s tem povezanih tveganjih za neželene učinke ali interakcije zaradi odsotnosti svetovanja, pri čemer so deležniki farmacevtske stroke ta vidik pogosto močneje izrazili kot deležniki iz vrst uporabnikov. Pogosto je bila omenjena tudi nevarnost vandaliziranja, približno enako zastopana tako med deležniki iz vrst stroke kot tudi uporabnikov. Intervjuvani deležniki so v splošnem izrazili več pomislekov glede izdaje zdravil prek lekarniških prodajnih avtomatov kot pa potencialnih prednosti ter se strinjali, da je pred tovrstnim korakom potrebna stroga regulacija. Ker gre tako v Sloveniji kakor tudi v evropskem in svetovnem merilu za novejši način izdaje zdravil, menimo, da je izrednega pomena podrobnejša analiza posamičnih negativnih vidikov ter preučitev razmerja med koristjo in tveganji izdaje zdravil prek lekarniških prodajnih avtomatov.Pharmacy vending machines have become widespread in the last years and represent an additional way of selling pharmacy products, as they generally enable a fast and anonymous 24/7 service. In some countries, they are also used to sell medicines. The purpose of this master\u27s thesis was to make an overview of the state of pharmacy vending machines in Slovenia and to obtain key stakeholders\u27 insight into their advantages and disadvantages, with special emphasis on dispensing medicines. We conducted 9 interviews with key stakeholders, that included 3 MPharm’s, 2 representatives of regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical societies and trade unions, and 4 patients. Interviewees were included until saturation of the obtained information occurred. We wanted to find out interviewees\u27 experiences with pharmacy vending machines, what their general opinion about them was, their advantages and disadvantages, and a more detailed opinion on dispensing medicines. The interviews were recorded and transcripts were prepared. The obtained data were qualitatively analyzed with the NVivo 11 Pro software. Records were coded and divided into themes and sub-themes. Participants\u27 positive views on pharmacy vending machines and the purchase of medicines via them were most often associated with a faster service and the possibility of 24/7 access. Relieving the workload of pharmacists who could devote time to other duties was also often mentioned. Participants’ negative views were most often reflected in potential medicine abuse or misuse of medicines, and the related risks of side effects or interactions due to the absence of pharmaceutical consultation, with stakeholders from the pharmaceutical profession often expressing this aspect more strongly than stakeholders from the patient category. The danger of vandalizing was also often mentioned, approximately equally represented among stakeholders. In general, stakeholders expressed more concerns about the dispensing of medicines via pharmacy vending machines than potential advantages, and agreed that strict regulation is necessary before such a step. Given that in Slovenia and both on a European and global scale this is a rather new method of dispensing medicines, we believe that a more detailed analysis of individual negative aspects and the benefit-risk ratio of dispensing medicines via pharmacy vending machines is needed. Last but not least, we believe that the inclusion of all key stakeholders is also essential when preparing possible changes in legislation

    An analysis of the relationship between sitting and productivity in the workplace

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    Mechanisms of institutional governance with climate change

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    An analysis of factors and process of employment termination

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    Analysis of the I feel Slovenia brand among Slovenes

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    The determinants of forecasting final energy consumption in Slovenia until 2050

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    The psychology of gold investing

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    City at the Border: Gorizia (1945–1955) and Nova Gorica (after 1948). A cross-curricular approach to teaching Italian as a foreign language and history in grammar school education

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    Magistrsko delo je razdeljeno na dva delav prvem delu sem se osredotočila predvsem na zgodovinski oris po letu 1943, ki je bil kritičen za Italijo kot kolaborantko z nacistično Nemčijo in ključen za vzpostavitev partizanskega gibanja v Jugoslaviji. Teoretičen del sem podkrepila z opravljenim terenskim delom tako italijanskega kot slovenskega prebivalstva. Njihova neprecenljiva pričevanja prispevajo k osmišljanju literature ter boljšemu razumevanju kompleksnih procesov, ki so botrovali oblikovanju meje. Raziskovala sem, v kolikšni meri se lahko individualni spomin razlikuje od kolektivnega in kateri elementi vplivajo na posameznikovo pripoved. V drugem delu sem se posvetila medpredmetnemu povezovanju italijanščine in zgodovine v 4. letniku gimnazijskega izobraževanja po metodi CLIL (ang. Content and Language Integrated Learning), ki je sodoben didaktični koncept poučevanja tujih jezikov za poučevanje nejezikovnega predmeta. Tako se v medsebojni povezavi razvijajo jezikovne in nejezikovne kompetence. Vsak učitelj je na svojem področju strokovnjak, zato je ključnega pomena dobro sodelovanje z drugimi učitelji ter fleksibilnost pri oblikovanju skupnih ciljev, ki bodo izpolnili zahteve učnega načrta. Z dobro pripravljenostjo učiteljev je lahko proces uspešen, še posebej, če pripravijo avtentične učne situacije, v katerih učenci aktivno sodelujejo ter urijo veščine kompleksnega mišljenja. Za didaktizacijo besedila sem izbrala časopisni članek Primorskega dnevnika z naslovom »Nedelja sirkovih metel«, ki je bil odraz političnega dogajanja v Jugoslaviji v 50. letih. O tem dogodku je pisal tudi italijanski časopis Oggi, ki je dogodek označil kot »pohod lačnih« zaradi težke ekonomske situacije v Jugoslaviji. Članka sta odličen primer, kako se lahko isti dogodek interpretira z različnih vidikov, kar spodbudi zanimanje za poglobljeno razumevanje ter kritičnost do zgodovinskih virov.The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, the focus is mainly on the historical outline after 1943, which was critical for Italy as a collaborator with Nazi Germany and crucial for the establishment of the partisan movement in Yugoslavia. The theoretical part is supported by fieldwork among both the Italian and Slovenian populations. Their invaluable testimonies contribute to the reflection of the literature and to a better understanding of the complex processes that led to the creation of the border. The thesis explores the extent to which individual memory can differ from collective memory and which elements influence an individual\u27s narrative. The second part focusses on the cross-curricular integration of Italian and history in the 4th year of grammar school education using the CLIL method (Content and Language Integrated Learning), which is a modern didactic concept of teaching foreign languages for teaching a non-language subject. In this way, linguistic and non-linguistic competences are developed in relation to each other. Each teacher is an expert in his or her own field, so it is essential to work well with other teachers and to be flexible in developing common objectives to meet the requirements of the curriculum. If the teachers are well-prepared, the process can be successful, especially if they prepare authentic learning situations in which students can actively participate and practise complex thinking skills. For the didacticization I chose a newspaper article from Primorski dnevnik entitled “Nedelja sirkovih metel” (“Sunday of the Sorghum Brooms”), which was a reflection of the political developments in Yugoslavia in the 1950s. The Italian newspaper Oggi also wrote about the event describing it as a “march of the hungry” due to the difficult economic situation in Yugoslavia. The two articles are an excellent example of how the same event can be interpreted from different perspectives, stimulating interest in a deeper understanding and critical engagement with historical sources

    Effects of layer inhomogeneities on the process of sewage sludge convective drying

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    Convective sewage sludge drying is often carried out in belt dryers, where the air flow is directed through the layer. In such a configuration, drying air properties, as well as the structure of the layer and its homogeneity are key factors affecting the drying process. In the present work, these factors were investigated using laboratory experiments on relatively large sludge samples with a mass of several kilograms. Drying was performed at relatively low drying air parameters (time-averaged temperatures of 65 to 80 °C and velocities of 0.44 to 0.78 m/s). The inhomogeneity of the sludge layer drying was observed by measuring the layer surface temperature with an IR camera. The reduction in layer thickness during drying was measured using an optical laser-based method. Analysis of the data included regression and fitting of the data to parametric drying curves, with the modified Nadhari drying law providing the best fit. The standard deviation of the layer surface thermograms (S) was used as a parameter that accounted for the layer homogeneity and consequently drying evenness. Higher values of S corresponded to lower drying rates and consequently longer drying times, highlighting the importance of producing layers with a homogenous structure. The measured layer thickness reduction rate indicated the overall drying intensity almost from the beginning of drying. Both the surface temperature unevenness and the layer height reduction measurement methods were demonstrated as viable approaches for real-time monitoring of the drying process with potential for application in real-scale dryers

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